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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

(Mark One)

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

 

Commission File Number: 001-39269

 

 

ORIC PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

47-1787157

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

240 E. Grand Ave, 2nd Floor

South San Francisco, CA

 

94080

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 388-5600

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

ORIC

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YesNo

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2021 (the last day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $521.6 million.

The number of shares of registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of March 16, 2022 was 39,434,149.

Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the Registrant’s Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Such Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s 2021 fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

Item 1.

Business

 

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

37

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

88

Item 2.

Properties

 

88

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

 

88

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

88

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

89

Item 6.

Reserved

 

91

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

92

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

100

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

101

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

120

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

 

120

Item 9B.

Other Information

 

120

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections

 

120

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

121

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

 

121

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

121

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

121

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

121

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

122

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

 

122

SIGNATURES

 

125

 

 

 

 

i


 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report on Form10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, development plans, planned preclinical studies and clinical trials, future results of clinical trials, expected research and development costs, regulatory strategy, timing and likelihood of success, as well as plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the ability of our clinical trials to demonstrate safety and efficacy of our product candidates, and other positive results;
the timing, progress and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and other product candidates we may develop, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;
the timing, scope and likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of Investigational New Drug, or IND, or Clinical Trial Application, or CTA, applications and final Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approval of ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and any other future product candidates;
the timing, scope or likelihood of foreign regulatory filings and approvals;
our ability to develop and advance our current product candidates and programs into, and successfully complete, clinical studies;
our manufacturing, commercialization, and marketing capabilities and strategy;
our plans relating to commercializing our product candidates, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and sales strategy;
the need to hire additional personnel and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;
our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
the size of the market opportunity for our product candidates, including our estimates of the number of patients who suffer from the diseases we are targeting;
our expectations regarding the approval and use of our product candidates in combination with other drugs;
our competitive position and the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;
our estimates of the number of patients that we will enroll in our clinical trials;
the beneficial characteristics, safety, efficacy and therapeutic effects of our product candidates;
our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates;
our plans relating to the further development of our product candidates, including additional indications we may pursue;
existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States, Europe and other jurisdictions;
our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and other product candidates we may develop, including the extensions of existing patent terms where available, the validity of intellectual property rights held by third parties, and our ability not to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights;
our continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of our product candidates, and for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical studies and clinical trials;
our ability to obtain, and negotiate favorable terms of, any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements that may be necessary or desirable to develop, manufacture or commercialize our product candidates;
the pricing and reimbursement of ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and other product candidates we may develop, if approved;

ii


 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and other product candidates we may develop;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our financial performance;
the period over which we estimate our existing cash, cash equivalents and available-for-sale investments will be sufficient to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;
the impact of laws and regulations;
our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and
our anticipated use of our existing resources.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about our business, the industry in which we operate and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and these forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or development. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

iii


 

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview

ORIC Pharmaceuticals is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to improving patients’ lives by Overcoming Resistance In Cancer.

Profound advancements in oncology drug development have expanded the treatment options available to patients, yet therapeutic resistance and relapse continue to limit the efficacy and duration of clinical benefit of such treatments. Collectively, our founders and management team have a decades-long heritage of identifying and characterizing resistance mechanisms in oncology, having discovered and developed groundbreaking medicines at companies such as Ignyta, Medivation, Aragon and Genentech.

Our fully integrated discovery and development team is advancing a diverse pipeline of innovative clinical and discovery stage therapies designed to counter resistance mechanisms in cancer by leveraging our expertise within three specific areas: hormone-dependent cancers, precision oncology and key tumor dependencies. Our clinical stage product candidates include:

ORIC-533, an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CD73, a key node in the adenosine pathway believed to play a central role in resistance to chemotherapy- and immunotherapy-based treatment regimens. In the second quarter of 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared the Investigational New Drug Application (IND) for ORIC-533, and we are enrolling patients in a Phase 1b trial as a single-agent in multiple myeloma. We expect to report initial Phase 1b data from this trial in the first half of 2023.
ORIC-114, a brain penetrant, orally bioavailable, irreversible inhibitor designed to selectively target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with high potency towards exon 20 insertion mutations, for which we licensed development and commercialization rights from Voronoi Inc. (Voronoi) in October 2020 (Voronoi License Agreement). In the fourth quarter of 2021, we filed a Clinical Trial Application (CTA) in South Korea for ORIC-114, which was cleared in the first quarter of 2022. We are pursuing a Phase 1b single agent trial which will enroll patients with advanced solid tumors with EGFR and HER2 exon 20 alterations or HER2 amplifications and will allow patients with CNS metastases that are either treated or untreated but asymptomatic. We expect to report initial Phase 1b data from this trial in the first half of 2023.
ORIC-944, an allosteric inhibitor of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) via the embryonic ectoderm development (EED) subunit, for which we licensed development and commercialization rights from Mirati Therapeutics, Inc. (Mirati) in August 2020 (Mirati License Agreement). We filed and cleared an IND with the FDA for ORIC-944 in the fourth quarter of 2021, and we are pursuing a single-agent clinical development plan in prostate cancer. We expect to report initial Phase 1b data from this trial in the first half of 2023.

Beyond these clinical stage product candidates, we are developing multiple discovery stage precision medicines targeting other hallmark cancer resistance mechanisms.

Cancer resistance continues to be one of the most daunting challenges facing patients, clinicians and researchers in oncology today. A multitude of biological factors and pathways have been linked to resistance, which enables tumors to restore cell growth and survival by circumventing a treatment’s intended mechanism of action. Our resistance platform is focused on three areas: (1) innate resistance, which derives from an unaddressed oncogenic driver that promotes tumorigenesis; (2) acquired resistance, the result of an induced or enriched oncogenic driver that arises in response to treatment; and (3) bypass resistance, the activation of a compensatory signaling pathway in response to treatment.

We are building a portfolio of novel agents targeting multiple resistance mechanisms by leveraging our specialized expertise in hormone-dependent cancers, precision oncology and key tumor dependencies:

 

Hormone-dependent cancers: Two of our founders, Drs. Charles Sawyers and Richard Heyman, are leading experts in nuclear hormone receptors and hormone-dependent cancers. They previously co-founded two oncology companies, Aragon (acquired by Johnson & Johnson in 2013) and Seragon (acquired by Roche in 2014), that developed therapeutics targeting two nuclear hormone receptors, the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER), respectively, the former effort leading to the approved drug Erleada (apalutamide). Our product candidate ORIC-944 is an allosteric inhibitor of PRC2 via EED and is being developed as a potential treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Additionally, we have a discovery stage program focused on the synthetic lethal inhibition of PLK4 for TRIM37 amplified breast cancers and other solid tumors. Given the breadth of solid tumor indications in which hormone

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signaling pathways have been implicated in driving disease, or in the development of resistance, we believe our differentiated insight into this biology is a crucial component of our future success.

 

Precision oncology: Our precision medicine approach of utilizing biomarkers for demonstration of target and pathway engagement and ultimately for patient selection is rooted in our management team’s prior experience at Ignyta (acquired by Roche in 2018) in successfully developing Rozlytrek (entrectinib), which was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ROS1-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK)-positive solid tumors in 2019. Similarly, our product candidate, ORIC-114, a brain penetrant, irreversible inhibitor designed to selectively target EGFR and HER2 with high potency against exon 20 insertion mutations, is being developed in genetically defined patient populations, including NSCLC and breast cancer. Our team’s experience in precision oncology dates back decades, including Dr. Sawyers’ pivotal role in the development of Gleevec (imatinib) and Sprycel (dasatinib). We believe our team’s expertise and experience in precision oncology will allow us to develop drugs with a higher probability of clinical success within biomarker-defined patient populations, while also potentially reducing the time and cost of development.

 

Key tumor dependencies: Key tumor dependencies are abnormal alterations that promote cancer cell growth and survival and also confer specific vulnerabilities that normal cells lack; these cancer-specific dependencies are compelling therapeutic targets. Our scientific team—led by our Chief Scientific Officer, Head of Drug Discovery, Head of Biology and Head of Translational Medicine—has amassed deep knowledge of key oncogenic drivers and pathways in order to identify and validate oncology targets. They most recently worked together at Genentech, where they progressed more than 20 oncology discovery programs into clinical development, with three approvals to date, including Cotellic (cobimetinib), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Polivy (polatuzumab vedotin). Our knowledge of innate, acquired and bypass resistance mechanisms, as well as our in-depth experience in forward and reverse translation, underpins our discovery efforts to identify key drivers of cancer resistance that can be exploited for therapeutic gain. Our resistance platform and in-house capabilities in medicinal chemistry and structure-based design enable us to pursue these resistance mechanisms. For example, our understanding of innate resistance and our medicinal chemistry expertise has led to the discovery of ORIC-533, an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CD73.

We are applying our internal drug discovery capabilities to these three areas of expertise to develop innovative therapies targeting the critical cancer resistance mechanisms that we believe will bring the largest benefit to patients, including by making existing therapies more effective for a longer period of time.

Our portfolio currently consists of multiple internally discovered and in-licensed programs targeting key resistance mechanisms in cancer. Our product candidates are shown in the figure below:

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_0.jpg 

 

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Our most advanced discovery and research programs are shown in the figure below:

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_1.jpg 

CD73 inhibitor program: ORIC-533

Many cancers usurp the anti-inflammatory adenosine pathway to avoid detection by the immune system, thereby reducing the effectiveness of certain chemotherapy- and immunotherapy-based treatments. Accumulation of adenosine in the tumor microenvironment is implicated in local immune suppression that leads to tumor growth. CD73 is an enzyme that controls the rate at which extracellular adenosine is produced and its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers, including TNBC, NSCLC, multiple myeloma, melanoma and prostate, among others. Several global pharmaceutical companies are developing anti-CD73 antibodies, but due to significant medicinal chemistry challenges, to our knowledge, only one additional orally bioavailable inhibitor of CD73 is in clinical development. With our resistance platform capabilities, our medicinal chemistry team created a differentiated compound that is both potent and orally bioavailable. Our product candidate ORIC-533, is an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CD73 that has demonstrated more potent adenosine inhibition in vitro compared to an antibody-based approach and other small molecule CD73 inhibitors. In the second quarter of 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared the Investigational New Drug Application (IND) for ORIC-533, and we are pursuing a single-agent clinical development plan in multiple myeloma.

Brain penetrant EGFR/HER2 program: ORIC-114

The ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family is involved in key cellular functions, including cell growth and survival. EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations are observed across multiple solid tumors, including NSCLC, breast, gastrointestinal, bladder and other cancers. EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations are observed in approximately 2% of all patients with NSCLC and these patients have a worse prognosis than patients with NSCLC driven by other EGFR mutations. HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations are observed in approximately 1.5% of all patients with NSCLC. Approximately one-third of patients with exon 20 insertion mutations develop brain metastases, which contributes to poor prognosis.

ORIC-114 is a brain penetrant, orally bioavailable, irreversible inhibitor designed to selectively target EGFR and HER2 with high potency against exon 20 insertion mutations. ORIC-114 has demonstrated greater brain exposure in preclinical studies compared to certain other compounds being developed against exon 20 mutations and has shown strong anti-tumor activity in an EGFR-driven intracranial lung cancer model. ORIC-114 has also demonstrated strong anti-tumor activity in both a subcutaneous and intracranial HER2-positive breast cancer model. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we filed a CTA for ORIC-114 in South Korea, which was cleared in the first quarter of 2022. We are pursuing a Phase 1b single agent trial which will enroll patients with advanced solid tumors with EGFR or HER2 exon 20 alterations or HER2 amplification and will allow patients with CNS metastases that are either treated or untreated but asymptomatic.

PRC2 inhibitor program: ORIC-944

The dysregulation of PRC2 methyltransferase activity can lead to tumorigenesis in a wide range of cancers including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and hematological malignancies. PRC2 is composed of two druggable subunits: EED and EZH2. Several companies are developing EZH2 inhibitors; however, the pharmacologic properties of these compounds result in high doses that achieve only partial target inhibition in the clinic. Additionally, preclinical studies suggest drug resistance to EZH2 inhibitors may develop via EZH1 bypass compensation or acquired mutations in EZH2. Allosteric inhibition of EED impacts the assembly, stabilization, and activation of PRC2, and may have benefits over EZH2-mediated inhibition of PRC2. ORIC-944 is a potent and selective allosteric inhibitor of PRC2 via the EED subunit and is efficacious in androgen-insensitive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer models in preclinical studies. We filed and cleared an IND with the FDA for ORIC-944 in the fourth quarter of 2021, and we are pursuing a single-agent clinical development plan in treatment-resistant prostate cancer.

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GR antagonist program: ORIC-101

ORIC-101, a potent and selective GR antagonist, with two distinct mechanisms of action was being evaluated in two Phase 1b trials in combination with: (1) Xtandi (enzalutamide) in metastatic prostate cancer and (2) Abraxane (nab-paclitaxel) in advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

In March 2022, based on planned interim analyses from the two Phase 1b studies, it was determined that while the combination regimens were generally well tolerated, they did not demonstrate sufficient clinical activity to support further development, and we announced the decision to discontinue further development of ORIC-101.

Other preclinical programs

In addition to our product candidates, we are leveraging our resistance platform in pursuit of multiple discovery research programs that focus on our expertise within hormone-dependent cancers, precision oncology and key tumor dependencies. These programs highlight our medicinal chemistry and structure-based design expertise, and thus for the most part utilize a small molecule therapeutic approach to target oncogenic drivers in solid tumors like prostate, breast, and lung cancer that relapse with innate, acquired or bypass resistance. Our most advanced small molecule discovery research programs are currently in lead optimization.

Our strategy

Our goal is to discover, develop and commercialize innovative therapies that overcome resistance in cancer. The key elements of our business strategy to achieve this goal include:

Leveraging the insights, experience and networks of our founders and management team. Our founders and management team have extensive experience identifying, discovering, developing and commercializing innovative cancer therapeutics aimed at novel targets, including Rozlytrek, Erleada, Talzenna, Xtandi, Sprycel and Gleevec. We are using this broad oncology experience together with our internal discovery and development capabilities to build a diverse pipeline of therapies targeting multiple cancer resistance mechanisms.
Advancing our product candidates as rapidly as possible through clinical development. In 2021, we filed and cleared INDs with the FDA for ORIC-533, an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CD73, and ORIC-944, a potent and selective allosteric inhibitor of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), that targets its regulatory embryonic ectoderm development (EED) subunit. We also filed a CTA in South Korea for ORIC-114, a brain penetrant, orally bioavailable, irreversible inhibitor designed to selectively target EGFR and HER2 with high potency towards exon 20 insertion mutations which was cleared in the first quarter of 2022. For ORIC-533 we are enrolling patients in a Phase 1b trial as a single-agent in multiple myeloma. For ORIC-114 we are pursuing a Phase 1b single agent trial which will enroll patients with advanced solid tumors with EGFR and HER2 exon 20 alterations or HER2 amplifications and will allow patients with CNS metastases that are either treated or untreated but asymptomatic. For ORIC-944 we are pursuing a single-agent clinical development plan in prostate cancer. We expect to report initial Phase 1b data from these three programs in the first half of 2023. Where possible we plan to pursue accelerated development strategies in areas of high unmet need.
Leveraging our resistance platform in building the leading, fully integrated company focused on delivering innovative medicines that aim to overcome resistance in cancer. As of December 31, 2021, we had 78 full-time employees, including world-class discovery, preclinical and clinical development teams, encompassing all major functions necessary to take a molecule from target identification through registrational clinical trials. Together, they bring in-house expertise in medicinal chemistry, biology, translational medicine, computational chemistry, in vitro and in vivo pharmacology, computational biology, biomarker development and CMC. We have also established internal expertise in clinical development, clinical operations, pharmacovigilance, clinical pharmacology, regulatory and quality. The members of our research and development organization have collectively led and contributed to dozens of IND filings and multiple drug approvals in oncology. These internal capabilities led to the discovery and clinical development of our first product candidate and will enable us to continue to expand and advance our portfolio of additional product candidates.
Continuing to expand our portfolio of product candidates through both internal research activities and business development efforts. Our internally generated product candidates include, ORIC-533, an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CD73. We also continue to advance our other internally generated programs as well as expand

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our pipeline through internal discovery activities. Simultaneously, we believe that accessing external innovation and expertise is important to our success. For example, we have in-licensed Mirati’s allosteric PRC2 program, including a lead product candidate now designated ORIC-944, as well as Voronoi’s EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion mutation program, including a lead product candidate now designated ORIC-114. We will continue to leverage our leadership team’s prior business development experience as we evaluate potential in-licensing and acquisition opportunities to further expand our portfolio. We aim to be the partner of choice for academic groups and companies in the field of cancer resistance.
Utilizing a precision medicine approach in the development of each of our product candidates. We use biomarkers to demonstrate target and pathway engagement and plan to use them for patient selection in our clinical trials. This approach is rooted in our team’s prior experiences developing targeted therapies, such as Rozlytrek, an orally bioavailable, tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for select tumors that harbor ROS1 or NTRK fusions. We seek to design rigorous and cost-efficient clinical programs that increase the probability of success by exploring connections between cellular-level biology and patient-level clinical outcomes. The use of biomarker-based patient selection is designed to enable demonstration of clinical proof-of-concept earlier and with fewer patients, leading ultimately to smaller pivotal trials. As part of our strategy, our in-house team of experienced translational scientists and computational biologists leverages existing technologies as well as develops proprietary assays to enable the selection and assessment of biomarkers for each of our programs.
Evaluating opportunities to accelerate development timelines and enhance the commercial potential of our programs in collaboration with third parties. We own or license full worldwide development and commercialization rights to each of our programs (other than with respect to our brain penetrant EGFR and HER2 program, ORIC-114, for which we own exclusive rights worldwide excluding the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan (the ORIC Territory)). We have established collaborations and intend to continue evaluating opportunities to work with partners that meaningfully enhance our capabilities with respect to the development and commercialization of our product candidates. In addition, we intend to commercialize our product candidates in key markets either alone or with partners in order to maximize the worldwide commercial potential of our programs.

Background on cancer resistance

Cancer resistance continues to be one of the most daunting challenges facing patients, clinicians and researchers in oncology today. A multitude of biological factors and pathways have been linked to resistance, which enables tumors to restore cell growth and survival by circumventing a treatment’s intended mechanism of action. Furthermore, treatment resistance in cancer emerges irrespective of therapeutic class, including targeted therapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy and chemotherapy.

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Our resistance platform is focused on three areas: (1) innate resistance, which derives from an unaddressed oncogenic driver that promotes tumorigenesis; (2) acquired resistance, the result of an induced or enriched oncogenic driver that arises in response to treatment; and (3) bypass resistance, the activation of a compensatory signaling pathway in response to treatment.

Overview of key resistance mechanisms and ORIC team’s prior relevant experience

 

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Innate resistance occurs when a key tumor dependency is not addressed, such as a driver mutation with no available targeted therapeutic. An example of a drug targeting innate resistance is Rozlytrek, developed by Ignyta for patients with ROS1-positive, metastatic NSCLC and NTRK gene fusion-positive solid tumors. We believe these innate resistance targets have a higher probability of technical success than other cancer targets, hold potential for meaningful clinical outcomes, and have the potential for rapid clinical development and approval timelines. Innate resistance targets have been the subject of a number of targeted therapies that have been approved over the past couple of decades. Studies have shown that treatments that target and inhibit unaddressed driver mutations have high response rates with generally good durability, including in a resistant setting. This efficacy in a refractory patient population in turn has been shown to enable a shorter development pathway, with many such agents being approved based upon single arm trials of modest size. New advances in small molecule drug discovery have created an opportunity to better target next-generation oncogenic drivers. Our pipeline includes several programs targeting innate resistance including ORIC-533, our orally bioavailable small molecule CD73 inhibitor, which we designed to address adenosine-driven innate resistance to chemotherapy- and immunotherapy-based treatment regimens and is being developed for multiple myeloma; ORIC-114, our brain penetrant, orally bioavailable, irreversible inhibitor designed to address innate resistance related to exon20 insertion mutations of EGFR and HER2 in lung and other tumors as well as HER2-positive breast cancer, and; ORIC-944, our allosteric inhibitor of PRC2, which was designed to address innate resistance related to PRC2 dysregulation in prostate and other tumors. While other therapies targeting innate resistance have shown technical success, our programs are distinct from other therapies and there is no guarantee that our product candidates will be approved, are more likely to receive FDA approval than other potential product candidates, or if approved, will be approved quickly.

 

Acquired resistance arises in response to treatment resulting in a newly acquired or enriched oncogenic driver. Genomic changes in the therapeutic target, such as DNA mutation or amplification, can be evolutionarily selected to propel proliferation in heterogeneous tumors or may be acquired through the course of the disease. Specific changes in the target itself often result in loss of potency of the initial therapeutic. An example of acquired resistance is seen in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with the first-generation BCR-ABL inhibitor Gleevec, with resistance frequently driven by mutations in BCR-ABL that lead to loss of Gleevec binding activity. The second-generation BCR-ABL inhibitor Sprycel was developed to specifically address acquired resistance to Gleevec, with our co-founder, Dr. Sawyers, playing a critical role in the development of both therapeutics. Our pipeline includes one preclinical program and several ongoing discovery efforts directed towards targets for acquired resistance in solid tumors.

 

Bypass resistance occurs when a therapeutically targeted cancer pathway is reactivated in cells to compensate for the presence of a therapeutic. Targeted therapies that induce reactivation of the same pathway indicate a key dependence on that specific pathway for tumor growth and survival. This key dependency concept is illustrated in the context of BRAF mutant melanoma. Mutations in the BRAF kinase allow for unrestricted signaling of the protein that is required

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for tumor growth and survival. Discovery of small molecule BRAF inhibitors led to significant reduction of tumor growth and improvement of melanoma patient survival, as the innate resistance was addressed. However, following the initial profound responses observed in patients, patients began relapsing. Mechanistic exploration into the basis of patient progression revealed that some tumors were evolving to reactivate the same pathway further downstream, as the tumors compensated for the BRAF therapeutic. The development of Cotellic to target MEK further downstream in this pathway overcame the bypass mechanism and significantly improved patient outcomes.

 

Collectively, our team has spent decades identifying and characterizing resistance mechanisms and has a strong heritage of bringing forth new and improved therapies designed to exploit resistance biology from the research lab to the clinic and, ultimately, to patients in need.

Our areas of focus within cancer resistance

Our vision for patients with cancer is that therapeutics specifically addressing resistance will provide durable treatment responses, such that solid tumors can become a chronic disease with patient survival measured in years rather than months. Within the broader resistance landscape, we have specialized expertise in hormone-dependent cancers, precision oncology and key tumor dependencies, areas in which we have focused our internal discovery and external business development efforts.

 

Hormone-dependent cancers

Two of our founders, Drs. Sawyers and Heyman, are leading experts in hormone-dependent cancers. They previously co-founded two oncology companies, Aragon and Seragon, that developed therapeutics targeting two nuclear hormone receptors, AR and ER, respectively. Following the acquisitions of Aragon—whose lead product, Erleada, was ultimately approved for prostate cancer—and Seragon, whose lead product candidates were being developed for breast cancer, Drs. Sawyers and Heyman founded ORIC.

Given the breadth of resistance in hormone driven cancers, we believe our differentiated insight into this biology is a crucial component of our future success. Our programs include the product candidate ORIC-944 being developed for prostate cancer and a discovery stage program focused on the synthetic lethal inhibition of PLK4 for TRIM37 amplified breast cancers.

Precision oncology (biomarker-driven, patient-selected trials)

Our clinical development team—including our Chief Medical Officer, Head of Clinical Development and heads of five core functions—previously worked together with our Chief Executive Officer at Ignyta, an oncology company that developed a pipeline of precision therapies, including Rozlytrek, which is now approved by the FDA in two different indications for genetically defined tumors, ROS1-positive metastatic NSCLC and NTRK-positive solid tumors. The clinical development of Rozlytrek, which was largely driven by this team, relied upon biomarker-driven patient selection via a companion diagnostic, leading to the approval of the compound approximately five years after it first entered the clinic.

The Rozlytrek and Ignyta experience can be seen as a paradigm for precision oncology, in which the identification of biomarkers forms the basis of the entire drug discovery and development process, from early understandings of PK and PD modulation of target biology through to appropriate patient selection during clinical development. As part of our strategy, our in-house team of experienced translational scientists and computational biologists utilize existing technologies as well as develop proprietary assays to enable the selection and assessment of biomarkers for each of our programs. We seek to design rigorous and cost-efficient clinical programs that increase the probability of success by exploring connections between cellular-level biology and patient-level clinical outcomes. The use of biomarker-based patient selection is designed to enable demonstration of clinical proof-of-concept earlier and with fewer patients, leading ultimately to smaller pivotal trials.

Our emphasis on a precision oncology approach to the mechanisms that underlie cancer resistance enables us to develop biological methods and assays that can be employed in the selection of appropriate patients for our development candidates rather than relying solely on limited clinical diagnosis information. For example, like many cancers, prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different pathways contributing to potential resistance mechanisms to anti-androgen therapy that may vary from patient to patient or evolve over the course of a patient’s treatment history. We intend to apply a precision oncology approach to the advancement of our entire pipeline.

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Key tumor dependencies

Our scientific team—led by our Chief Scientific Officer, Head of Drug Discovery, Head of Biology and Head of Translational Medicine—has amassed deep knowledge of key oncogenic drivers and pathways in order to identify and validate oncology targets. They most recently worked together at Genentech, where they progressed more than 20 oncology discovery programs into clinical development, with three approvals to date, including Cotellic, Zelboraf and Polivy. The team’s approach to uncovering tumor dependencies that are key drivers of cancer resistance is biology-focused and mechanistically driven.

Tumors are dependent on distinct biological drivers, or key tumor dependencies, which can be exploited to develop therapeutics. Examples of key tumor dependencies include oncogenic drivers, metabolic dependencies and lineage-specific markers. The earliest known tumor dependency occurs after normal cells acquire mutations that initiate tumor development. These early lesions continuously evolve within a given tissue in the presence of other cell types, such as endothelial and immune cells, ultimately generating a heterogeneous tumor ecosystem. The interplay between tumor cells and other heterologous cell types within a tissue impart physiological restrictions, such as limited oxygen or increased acidity, that tumor cells are forced to withstand to enable growth. This concept of evolution under selective pressure also applies in the context of an advanced tumor being subjected to therapeutic interventions—the relapsing tumors are forced to adapt in order to grow in the presence of treatment. Through these evolutionary processes, tumor cells can become exclusively dependent on distinct pathways, and these are the key dependencies that can be exploited for therapeutic gain.

Our understanding of key tumor dependencies has also led to the development of an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CD73, ORIC-533, that targets adenosine within a key metabolic pathway upon which tumors become dependent. Many cancers usurp the anti-inflammatory adenosine pathway to avoid detection by the immune system, thereby reducing the effectiveness of certain chemotherapy and immunotherapy-based treatments. Accumulation of adenosine in the tumor microenvironment is implicated in local immune suppression that leads to tumor growth. CD73 is an enzyme that controls the rate at which extracellular adenosine is produced and its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers, including TNBC, NSCLC, multiple myeloma, melanoma and prostate, among others. In addition to our CD73 program, we are developing multiple programs focused on addressing key dependencies in solid tumors, defined as either unaddressed drivers of innate resistance, acquired mutations or bypass mechanisms that cause relapse.

Our resistance platform and in-house capabilities in medicinal chemistry and structure-based design enable drug discovery efforts for these resistance mechanisms. This platform, along with our forward and reverse translation expertise, underpins our efforts to address key drivers of cancer resistance.

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Our pipeline to treat cancer resistance

Our portfolio currently consists of multiple internally discovered and in-licensed programs targeting key resistance mechanisms in cancer. Our product candidates are shown in the figure below:

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_3.jpg 

Our most advanced discovery and research programs are shown in the figure below:

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_4.jpg 

CD73 inhibitor program: ORIC-533

Background on adenosine and CD73

Adenosine, a purine nucleoside base, is an extracellular signaling molecule derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Adenosine is a potent suppressor of immune function and accumulates in tissues at sites of inflammation and damage. Analogously, in the context of tumors, adenosine in the tumor microenvironment is implicated in local immunosuppression that leads to tumor growth. Extracellular ATP is metabolized to AMP by the enzyme CD39, and AMP is metabolized to adenosine by the enzyme CD73. Adenosine, via its interaction with adenosine receptors, functions to suppress immune function. Multiple cell types within the tumor milieu, including cancer cells, endothelial cells and immune cells, express CD73.

Rationale for targeting CD73 in oncology

Many cancers usurp the anti-inflammatory adenosine pathway to avoid detection by the immune system, thereby reducing the effectiveness of certain chemotherapy- and immunotherapy-based treatments. Accumulation of adenosine in the tumor microenvironment is implicated in local immune suppression that leads to tumor growth. As shown in the figure below, CD73 is an enzyme that controls the rate at which extracellular adenosine is produced, and its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers, including TNBC, NSCLC, multiple myeloma, melanoma and prostate, among others. Several global pharmaceutical companies are developing anti-CD73 antibodies, but due to significant medicinal chemistry challenges, to our knowledge, only one orally bioavailable inhibitor of CD73 is in clinical development. With our resistance platform capabilities, our medicinal chemistry team created a differentiated compound that is both potent and orally bioavailable.

 

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CD73 has been linked to therapy resistance

 

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Preclinical data

ORIC-533 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that potently and selectively antagonizes CD73 enzymatic function (< 1nM) and fully inhibits CD73-mediated AMP to adenosine conversion both in human tumor cells and immune cells. Preclinical studies show that ORIC-533 restores CD8+ T-cell expansion and activation of adenosine-induced immunosuppression. Reversal of adenosine-induced intratumoral immunosuppression with ORIC-533 leads to significant anti-tumor responses in vivo.

 

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In the figure above on the left, an ORIC-533 analogue decreased adenosine production in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured human CD8+ T cells and human H1568 cancer cells. While an ORIC-533 analogue can completely block adenosine production by immune and tumor cells, an anti-CD73 antibody is unable to achieve the same degree of functional inhibition. In the figure above on the right, a single oral dose of our compound in mice achieved unbound plasma exposures that exceed the in vitro EC90 levels required for suppression of adenosine production for 24 hours.

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Moreover, CD73 inhibition in vivo substantially reduced the adenosine/AMP ratio in EMT6 mouse tumors following sustained CD73 inhibitor treatment.

 

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Source: ORIC data using syngeneic EG7 tumor model, AACR June 2020 abstract 10268, poster LB-115

*: p<0.005. ***: p = 0.0006. ****: p < 0.0001.

In the figure above on the left, daily CD73 inhibitor treatment with our product candidate ORIC-533 significantly impairs syngeneic tumor growth and tumor size as an orally dosed single-agent. Evaluation of tumors at the end of study, on the right above, show the depletion of adenosine and corresponding increase in T cells in the tumor microenvironment.

When compared to other CD73 inhibitors in preclinical studies, ORIC-533 more potently suppressed adenosine production from AMP in both T cells and tumor cells, and at nM concentrations was able to rescue activation of CD8+ T cells exposed to a high AMP environment.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_8.jpg 

 

Source: ORIC data, AACR June 2020 abstract 4317, poster 1023

*: Bowman et al, 2019. **: WO2019246403A1 Compound 9. ***: WO2019168744A1 Example 2

 

The above figure demonstrates the results of a series of preclinical experiments that we conducted evaluating ORIC-533, AB680, Calithera, and Eli Lilly compounds across a variety of properties that we believe to be important in developing a potent and efficacious CD73 inhibitor. In the figure and table on the left above, human PBMCs, H1568 NSCLC cells, and human CD8+ T cells were pre-treated with compounds for 15 minutes, followed by addition of 10 uM AMP/5 uM EHNA for 1 hour. Adenosine in

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supernatant was quantified by LC-MS/MS. The biochemical binding assay was carried out with purified CD73 protein and compounds assessed at a wide concentration range to calculate IC50. In the figure on the above right, human PBMC-derived CD8+ T cells were activated for 24 hours with tetrameric anti-CD3/CD28/CD2 antibodies in serum free media, labeled with CellTrace™ Violet and plated onto 96-well plates. Compounds at varying concentrations and 1 millimolar AMP were added, and cells incubated for 72-96 hours. T cell proliferation was quantified by flow cytometry. TNFa cytokine production in cell supernatants was measured by Meso Scale Discovery immunoassay.

In the second quarter of 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared the Investigational New Drug Application (IND) for ORIC-533, and we are pursuing a single-agent clinical development plan in multiple myeloma.

In the fourth quarter of 2021, we presented data supporting the therapeutic potential of ORIC-533 in multiple myeloma. Key highlights included:

Patient samples from multiple myeloma demonstrated that the tumor environment is adenosine rich and further studies have shown that high CD73 and high adenosine are associated with poor prognosis and therapeutic resistance in multiple myeloma.
Compelling mechanistic rationale, supported by research from Dr. Kenneth Anderson’s lab at Dana Farber Cancer Institute. As shown on the figures on the right below, ORIC CD73 inhibitor reversed adenosine driven immunosuppression and restored T-cell activity to induce killing of multiple myeloma cells from patients.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_9.jpg 

 

Source: Ray et al. ASH Poster (2021).

In additional ex vivo studies, mononuclear cells taken from the bone marrow of three multiple myeloma patient donors were cultured in the presence and absence of ORIC CD73 inhibitor, after which fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to quantify the amount of myeloma cell death. As shown in the figure on the right below, the addition of the CD73 inhibitor induced an average of approximately 40% lysis of multiple myeloma cells in this ex-vivo patient assay. The ORIC CD73 inhibitor activity in the ex vivo assay from patients with multiple myeloma compares favorably to data previously reported with approved therapies for the treatment of multiple myeloma, including lenalidomide, bortezomib and daratumumab.

 

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Source: Nijhof et al. Clin Cancer Res (2015) and Ray et al. ASH Poster (2021). Note: LEN, lenalidomide. DARA, daratumumab. BOR, bortezomib.

Brain penetrant EGFR/HER2 program: ORIC-114

Background

The ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family is involved in key cellular functions, including cell growth and survival. EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations are observed across multiple solid tumors, including NSCLC, breast, gastrointestinal, bladder and other cancers. EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations are observed in approximately 2% of all patients with NSCLC and these patients have a worse prognosis than patients with NSCLC driven by other EGFR mutations. HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations are observed in approximately 1.5% of all patients with NSCLC. Outside of NSCLC, it is estimated that EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations are observed in 0.6% of patients. In total, these prevalence estimates suggest a target population in non-small cell lung cancer of over 7,500 patients in the US annually, plus an additional 8,500 patients across other cancers.

In addition to the EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion population, HER2 amplifications are commonly observed in metastatic breast cancer and can also be observed in other malignancies such as certain gastrointestinal tumors. HER2-positive breast cancer represents approximately 25% of all breast cancers and up to half of the HER2-positive breast cancer patients develop brain metastases over the course of their disease.

Rationale for brain penetrant inhibitor of EGFR/HER2 with high potency towards exon 20 mutations

Currently, the medicines approved by the FDA specifically to treat NSCLC with EGFR or HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations provide limited benefit for patients with active brain metastases. Within NSCLC, approximately one-third of patients with exon 20 insertion mutations develop brain metastases, which contributes to poor prognosis. Several companies are developing EGFR exon 20

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inhibitors; however, to our knowledge none have demonstrated significant brain exposure in patients suitable for addressing brain metastases, an area of significant unmet medical need.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_11.jpg 

 

(1) Robichaux et al Nat Med (2018). EGFR exon 20 insertion (n=9) and classical EGFR mutation (n=129)

EGFR exon 20 insertions are associated with lower PFS with first and second generation EGFR TKIs, such as erlotinib, gefitinib and afatinib, compared to other EGFR mutations.

Preclinical data

ORIC-114 was designed as a brain penetrant, orally bioavailable, irreversible inhibitor designed to selectively target EGFR and HER2 with nanomolar potency towards exon 20 insertion mutations. As shown in the figure below, in a kinase selectivity panel, the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases were strong hits and there were no off-targets identified for ORIC-114, unlike the comparator clinical compounds.

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_12.jpg 

 

All kinome selectivity screens were conducted on a 468 kinase panel with 1 uM of either TAK-788, poziotinib, CLN-081, BDTX-189 or ORIC-114 in a head-to-head assessment. The top 10% of hits are shown in red. Notably, ORIC-114 did not hit any of the 3F family of kinases with the potential for covalent Cys interaction in the active site.

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ORIC-114 demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in various NSCLC EGFR exon 20 insertion mutation models. In the examples below, in models carrying the variants NPH, ASV and insG, ORIC-114 demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity when dosed orally once daily at 4 mg/kg.

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_13.jpg 

In the head-to-head in vivo study in an EGFR exon 20 insertion lung cancer model shown below, ORIC-114 demonstrated greater antitumor activity than BDTX-189 and CLN-081. A 90% complete response rate was observed for ORIC-114 at the well tolerated dose of 3mg/kg once daily compared to no complete responses observed for BDTX-189, and only two complete responses for CLN-081. Additionally, in the CLN-081 cohort, 25% of the animals had to come off-study due to significant weight loss. Collectively, these in vivo data indicate the potential for a broader therapeutic index of ORIC-114.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_14.jpg 

 

Note: LU0387 lung adenocarcinoma EGFR ex20ins H773-V774insNPH xenograft model. N = 8-10 mice per group. CR defined as < 30 mm3.

ORIC-114 was designed for brain penetrance and demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in an intracranial NSCLC EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation in vivo model, when dosed orally at 2.5 mg/kg QD, superior to TAK-788 which was dosed orally at 30

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mg/kg QD and osimertinib at 10 mg/kg QD. Efficacy was measured by quantification of the bioluminescence photon flux in mice carrying intracranial PC9-Luc tumors.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_15.jpg 

 

A key feature of ORIC-114 differentiation is that it was designed to optimize brain exposure across multiple parameters, including pump engagement, physicochemical properties, and free unbound fraction in the brain. Together, these compound characteristics translate in vivo into a high brain to plasma ratio in mice of nearly 1, as shown in the graph below, which depicts the free unbound fraction. Importantly, ORIC-114 high brain to plasma ratio was maintained at both 1 and 4 hours. In comparison with other clinical compounds, ORIC-114 free brain to plasma ratios are on par with osimertinib, which is deemed a CNS clinically active compound. In contrast, the free brain to plasma ratio of ORIC-114 is superior to other exon 20 directed agents such as TAK-788 and CLN-081, and is also superior to the HER2 agent, tucatinib, and its active metabolite. In summary, the limitations of current therapies to address brain metastases in both the exon 20 mutant population and the HER2-positive patient population, present an opportunity for ORIC-114.

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_16.jpg 

 

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Rationale for brain penetrant inhibitor of HER2 amplification

HER2-positive breast cancer represents approximately 25% of all breast cancers and up to half of the HER2-positive breast cancer patients develop brain metastases over the course of their disease. Most current FDA approved HER2-directed therapies are not effective at crossing the blood-brain-barrier. Recently tucatinib was approved for HER2-positive breast cancer patients with brain metastases; however, we hypothesize that tucatinib activity may be limited by modest brain exposure of the parent drug and its active metabolite. Several companies are developing HER2 inhibitors; however, to our knowledge none have demonstrated significant brain exposure suitable for addressing brain metastases, an area of significant unmet medical need.

The in vivo result shown on the figure below on the left indicates that orally dosed ORIC-114 has strong anti-tumor activity systemically in a subcutaneous HER2-positive breast cancer model, with tumor growth inhibition of 111% and two complete responses. ORIC-114 and tucatinib both demonstrate regressions in this subcutaneous model. However, in the figure below on the right, in the same HER2-positive breast cancer model with the tumors grown intracranially, oral dosing of ORIC-114 showed significant tumor growth inhibition in this intracranial model, with superior antitumor activity in the brain versus tucatinib.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_17.jpg 

In the fourth quarter of 2021, we filed a Clinical Trial Application (CTA) for ORIC-114 in South Korea, which was cleared in the first quarter of 2022.

PRC2 inhibitor program: ORIC-944

Background

The PRC2 is a histone methyltransferase consisting of three core subunits: EED, EZH2 or EZH1, and SUZ12 and plays a key role in gene regulation and transcriptional repression, in particular during embryonic development. The dysregulation of PRC2 can lead to tumorigenesis in a wide range of cancers including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and hematological malignancies. EED is responsible for histone binding and activation of the PRC2 complex. Allosteric inhibition of EED impacts the assembly, stabilization, and activation of PRC2.

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Rationale for targeting allosteric inhibition of PRC2 through EED

The PRC2 complex has two druggable subunits, EZH2, whose enzymatic function is the target of first generation therapeutics, and EED, which next-generation therapeutics like ORIC-944 inhibit. Several companies are developing EZH2 inhibitors; however, the pharmacologic properties of these compounds result in high doses given more than once a day, that achieve only partial target inhibition in the clinic. Allosteric inhibition of PRC2 through EED is differentiated from targeting EZH2 and may be beneficial for a number of reasons. First, preclinical studies show that EED inhibition is active against mutants in EZH2 that confer innate resistance to EZH2 inhibitors. Second, in a similar fashion, acquired mutations in EZH2 are sensitive to EED inhibition. Third, cells treated with EZH2 inhibitors are also able to activate EHZ1 in a compensatory bypass mechanism of resistance, yet those cells are sensitive to EED inhibition.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_18.jpg 

 

Note: EZH1, enhancer of zeste homolog 1. EZH2, enhancer of zeste homolog 2. EED, embryonic ectoderm development. SUZ12, suppressor of zeste 12. H3K27, histone H3 at lysine 27. (1) Yu et al. Cancer Res. (2007).

Preclinical Data

ORIC-944 is a potent and selective allosteric inhibitor of PRC2 with mechanism of action via binding the EED subunit. ORIC-944 when dosed orally once a day as a single-agent significantly inhibited prostate tumor growth in androgen insensitive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer models as seen in the figures below. While cross-study comparisons of preclinical data have limitations and caveats, the ORIC-944 efficacy appears to be superior to EZH2 inhibitors in the same models.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/f3e1b36086b14f93a0587390c2fcee1a-img258523212_19.jpg 

 

Note: ORIC-944 dose used was 200 mg/kg QD. Enzalutamide dose used was 30 mg/kg QD. ****p < 0.0001. Left graph: C4-2 xenograft model. Right graph: 22Rv1 xenograft model.

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Additional preclinical studies with ORIC-944 as a monotherapy and in combination regimens are being explored. We filed and cleared an IND with the FDA for ORIC-944 in the fourth quarter of 2021, and we are pursuing a single-agent clinical development plan in metastatic prostate cancer.

GR antagonist program: ORIC-101

ORIC-101, a potent and selective GR antagonist, with two distinct mechanisms of action was being evaluated in two Phase 1b trials in combination with: (1) Xtandi (enzalutamide) in metastatic prostate cancer and (2) Abraxane (nab-paclitaxel) in advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

In March 2022, based on planned interim analyses from the two Phase 1b studies, it was determined that while the combination regimens were generally well tolerated, they did not demonstrate sufficient clinical activity to support further development, and we announced the decision to discontinue further development of ORIC-101.

Other preclinical programs

In addition to our product candidates, we are leveraging our resistance platform in pursuit of multiple discovery research programs that focus on our expertise within hormone-dependent cancers, precision oncology and key tumor dependencies. These programs highlight our medicinal chemistry and structure-based design expertise, and thus for the most part utilize a small molecule therapeutic approach to target oncogenic drivers in solid tumors like prostate, breast, and lung cancer that relapse with innate, acquired or bypass resistance. Our most advanced small molecule discovery research programs are currently in lead optimization.

PLK4 Program: a small molecule therapeutic intended to address a mechanism of innate resistance found in a subset of breast cancers, specifically a synthetic lethal interaction of PLK4 inhibition in tumors bearing a TRIM37 DNA amplification. Breast cancer models as well as other tumor models with this TRIM37 amplification have a key tumor dependency on PLK4 and our therapeutic approach is to inhibit this enzyme.
Discovery Program A: a small molecule therapeutic intended to address an acquired resistance mechanism in lung cancer that is caused by a mutation that arises in an enzyme within a subset of NSCLC patients after first-line treatment with another agent.
Discovery Program B: a blocking antibody that is targeting a mechanism of innate resistance caused by a gene rearrangement found in a subset of many solid tumors.

Our license agreements

Voronoi license agreement

On October 19, 2020, we entered into the Voronoi License Agreement, a license and collaboration agreement, with Voronoi. The Voronoi License Agreement gives us access to Voronoi’s preclinical stage EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion mutation program, including a lead product candidate now designated as ORIC-114. Under the Voronoi License Agreement, Voronoi granted us an exclusive, sublicensable license under Voronoi’s rights to certain patent applications directed to certain small molecule compounds that bind to EGFR or HER2 with one or more exon 20 insertion mutations and certain related know-how, in each case, to develop and commercialize certain licensed compounds and licensed products incorporating any such compound in the ORIC Territory, defined as worldwide other than in the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Under the Voronoi License Agreement, Voronoi has the right to perform certain mutually agreed upon development activities. Except for Voronoi's right to participate in such development activities, we are wholly responsible for development and commercialization of licensed products in the ORIC Territory. In addition, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize at least one licensed product in certain major markets in the ORIC Territory.

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Our financial obligations under the Voronoi License Agreement included an upfront payment of $5.0 million in cash and the issuance to Voronoi of 283,259 shares of our common stock issued pursuant to a stock issuance agreement entered into between the parties on October 19, 2020. The number of shares issued pursuant to the stock issuance agreement was based on a price of $28.24 per share, representing a premium of 25% to the 30-day trailing volume weighted average trading price of our common stock. The shares were issued in a private placement in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, as amended, for transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering.

Under the Voronoi License Agreement, Voronoi will be responsible for certain research and development costs up to a predetermined threshold. Upon achievement of the predetermined threshold, Voronoi has the option to opt-out of participation in and funding of future development activities. If Voronoi decides not to exercise the opt-out provision, the parties will share certain future research and development costs equally in the Republic of Korea. We are also obligated to make milestone payments to Voronoi upon the achievement of certain events. Upon the achievement of certain development and regulatory milestones with respect to the first licensed product, we are obligated to pay Voronoi up to a maximum of $111.0 million. Upon the achievement of certain commercial milestones with respect to the first licensed product, we are obligated to pay Voronoi up to a maximum of $225.0 million. If we pursue a second licensed product, we could pay Voronoi up to an additional $272.0 million in success-based milestones. In addition, we are obligated to pay royalties on net sales of licensed products in the ORIC Territory.

Unless earlier terminated, the Voronoi License Agreement will continue in effect until the expiration of all royalty payment obligations. Following the expiration of the Voronoi License Agreement, we will retain our licenses under the intellectual property Voronoi licensed to us on a royalty-free basis. We and Voronoi may each terminate the Voronoi License Agreement if the other party materially breaches the terms of such agreement, subject to specified notice and cure provisions, or enters into bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings. Voronoi may also terminate the agreement if we discontinue development of licensed products for a specified period of time. We also have the right to terminate the Voronoi License Agreement without cause by providing prior notice to Voronoi.

If Voronoi terminates the Voronoi License Agreement for cause, or we terminate the Voronoi License Agreement without cause, then we are obligated to grant a nonexclusive license to Voronoi under certain of our patents and know-how and to assign to Voronoi certain of our regulatory filings for licensed compounds and licensed products.

Mirati license agreement

On August 3, 2020, we entered into a license agreement (Mirati License Agreement) with Mirati. Under the Mirati License Agreement, Mirati granted us a worldwide, exclusive, sublicensable, royalty-free license under Mirati’s rights to certain patents and patent applications directed to certain small molecule compounds that bind to and inhibit PRC2 and certain related know-how, in each case, to develop and commercialize certain licensed compounds and licensed products incorporating any such compound. Under the Mirati License Agreement, we are wholly responsible for development and commercialization of licensed products. In addition, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize at least one licensed product in certain major markets.

Our financial obligation under the Mirati License Agreement was an upfront payment of 588,235 shares of our common stock, issued pursuant to a stock issuance agreement entered into between the parties on August 3, 2020. The number of shares issued was based on a price of $34.00 per share, representing a premium of 10% to the 60-day trailing volume weighted average trading price of our common stock. The shares were issued in a private placement in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, for transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering. During the eighteen-month period following the date of the agreement, Mirati is subject to certain transfer restrictions, and the parties agreed to negotiate and enter into a registration rights agreement, with respect to the shares. We are not obligated to pay Mirati milestones or royalties.

Unless earlier terminated, the Mirati License Agreement will continue in effect on a country-by-country and licensed product-by-licensed product basis until the later of (a) the expiration of the last valid claim of a licensed patent covering such licensed product in such country or (b) ten years after the first commercial sale of such licensed product in such country. Following the expiration of the Mirati License Agreement, we will retain our licenses under the intellectual property Mirati licensed to us on a royalty-free basis. We and Mirati may each terminate the Mirati License Agreement if the other party materially breaches the terms of such agreement, subject to specified notice and cure provisions, or enters into bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings. Mirati may terminate the agreement if we challenge any of the patent rights licensed to us by Mirati or we discontinue development of licensed products for a specified period of time. We also have the right to terminate the Mirati License Agreement without cause by providing prior notice to Mirati.

If Mirati terminates the Mirati License Agreement, or we terminate the Mirati License Agreement without cause, then we are obligated to assign to Mirati, or grant an exclusive license to Mirati with respect to, certain of our patents, know-how and regulatory filings directed to licensed compounds and licensed products.

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Sales and marketing

We intend to retain significant development and commercial rights to our product candidates and, if marketing approval is obtained, to commercialize our product candidates on our own, or potentially with a partner, in the United States and other regions. We currently have no sales, marketing or commercial product distribution capabilities. We intend to build the necessary infrastructure and capabilities over time for the United States, and potentially other regions, following further advancement of our product candidates. Clinical data, the size of the addressable patient population, the size of the required commercial infrastructure and manufacturing needs may all influence or alter our commercialization plans.

Manufacturing

We do not own or operate, and currently have no plans to establish, any manufacturing facilities. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacture if any of our product candidates obtain marketing approval. We also rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to package, label, store and distribute our investigational product candidates, as well as for our commercial products if marketing approval is obtained. We believe that this strategy allows us to maintain a more efficient infrastructure by eliminating the need for us to invest in our own manufacturing facilities, equipment and personnel while also enabling us to focus our expertise and resources on the development of our product candidates.

To date, we have obtained active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug product for our product candidates from single-source third party contract manufacturers. We are in the process of developing our supply chain for each of our product candidates and intend to put in place framework agreements under which third-party contract manufacturers will generally provide us with necessary quantities of API and drug product on a project-by-project basis based on our development needs.

As we advance our product candidates through development, we will consider whether to change our lack of redundant supply for the API and drug product for each of our product candidates to protect against any potential supply disruptions.

We generally expect to rely on third parties for the manufacture of any companion diagnostics we may develop.

Intellectual property

We strive to protect and enhance the proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are commercially important to our business, including obtaining, maintaining and defending our patent rights. Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing patent applications and obtaining issued patents, or in-licensing issued patents and patent applications, in the United States and in markets outside of the United States directed to our proprietary technology, inventions, improvements and product candidates that are important to the development and implementation of our business. We also rely on trade secrets and know-how relating to our proprietary technology and product candidates and continuing innovation to develop, strengthen and maintain our proprietary position in the field of oncology. We also plan to rely on data exclusivity, market exclusivity and patent term extensions when available. Our commercial success will depend in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and other proprietary protection for our technology, inventions, improvements and product candidates; to preserve the confidentiality of our trade secrets; to defend and enforce our proprietary rights, including any patents that we may own or license in the future; and to operate without infringing on the valid and enforceable patents and other proprietary rights of third parties.

Our patent portfolio consists of issued patents and pending patent applications that we own or in-licensed related to ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and various other compounds and programs. As of December 31, 2021, the portfolio includes 5 issued United States patents, 22 pending United States patent applications, 3 pending international patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT application), 2 issued patents in various markets outside of the United States, and more than 50 pending patent applications in various markets outside of the United States.

As of December 31, 2021, our patent portfolio covering ORIC-533 included patents issued in the United States, along with patent applications pending in the United States, Europe, Japan, China and other markets outside of the United States. The issued United States patents covering ORIC-533 as composition of matter, pharmaceutical compositions and related methods of use are expected to expire in 2040, absent any patent term extensions for regulatory delay. Any patents that may issue from our pending patent applications related to ORIC-533 are expected to expire between 2040 and 2042, absent any patent term adjustments or extensions.

As of December 31, 2021, our patent portfolio covering ORIC-114 that we have exclusively in-licensed from Voronoi in the ORIC Territory include an issued patent in Korea, along with patent applications pending in the United States, Europe, Japan, China and other markets outside of the United States. Any patents that may issue from the pending patent applications related to ORIC-114 are expected to expire between 2040 and 2042, absent any patent term adjustments or extensions.

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As of December 31, 2021, our patent portfolio covering ORIC-944 that we have exclusively in-licensed from Mirati include patents issued in Israel and the United States, along with patent applications pending in the United States, Europe, Japan, China and other markets outside of the United States. The issued United States patents covering ORIC-944 as composition of matter, pharmaceutical compositions and related methods of use are expected to expire in 2039, absent any patent term extensions for regulatory delay. Any patents that may issue from the pending patent applications related to ORIC-944 are expected to expire between 2039 and 2042, absent any patent term adjustments or extensions.

We also possess substantial know-how and trade secrets relating to the development and commercialization of our product candidates, including related manufacturing processes and technology.

With respect to our product candidates and processes we intend to develop and commercialize in the normal course of business, we intend to pursue patent protection covering, when possible, compositions, methods of use, dosing and formulations. We may also pursue patent protection with respect to manufacturing and drug development processes and technologies.

Issued patents can provide protection for varying periods of time, depending upon the date of filing of the patent application, the date of patent issuance and the legal term of patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In general, patents issued for applications filed in the United States can provide exclusionary rights for 20 years from the earliest effective filing date. In addition, in certain instances, the term of an issued U.S. patent that covers or claims an FDA approved product can be extended to recapture a portion of the term effectively lost as a result of the FDA regulatory review period, which is called patent term extension. The restoration period cannot be longer than five years and the total patent term, including the restoration period, must not exceed 14 years following FDA approval. The term of patents outside of the United States varies in accordance with the laws of the foreign jurisdiction, but typically is also 20 years from the earliest effective filing date. However, the actual protection afforded by a patent varies on a product-by-product basis, from country-to-country and depends upon many factors, including the type of patent, the scope of its coverage, the availability of regulatory-related extensions, the availability of legal remedies in a particular country and the validity and enforceability of the patent.

The patent positions of companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. No consistent policy regarding the scope of claims allowable in patents in the field of oncology has emerged in the United States. The relevant patent laws and their interpretation outside of the United States is also uncertain. Changes in either the patent laws or their interpretation in the United States and other countries may diminish our ability to protect our technology or product candidates and could affect the value of such intellectual property. In particular, our ability to stop third parties from making, using, selling, offering to sell or importing products that infringe our intellectual property will depend in part on our success in obtaining and enforcing patent claims that cover our technology, inventions and improvements. We cannot guarantee that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications we may file in the future, nor can we be sure that any patents that may be granted to us in the future will be commercially useful in protecting our products, the methods of use or manufacture of those products.

Moreover, even our issued patents may not guarantee us the right to practice our technology in relation to the commercialization of our products. Patent and other intellectual property rights in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology space are evolving and involve many risks and uncertainties. For example, third parties may have blocking patents that could be used to prevent us from commercializing our product candidates and practicing our proprietary technology, and our issued patents may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing related products or could limit the term of patent protection that otherwise may exist for our product candidates. In addition, the scope of the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology. Furthermore, our competitors may independently develop similar technologies that are outside the scope of the rights granted under any issued patents. For these reasons, we may face competition with respect to our product candidates. Moreover, because of the extensive time required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product, it is possible that, before any particular product candidate can be commercialized, any patent protection for such product may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing the commercial advantage the patent provides.

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Competition

The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary products. While we believe that our technology, the expertise of our executive and scientific team, research, clinical capabilities, development experience and scientific knowledge provide us with competitive advantages, we face increasing competition from many different sources, including pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies and public and private research institutions. Product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize may compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future.

Many of our competitors, either alone or with their collaborators, have significantly greater financial resources, established presence in the market, expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical and clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals and reimbursement and marketing approved products than we do. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. Additional mergers and acquisitions may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors.

Our commercial potential could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market or make our development more complicated. The key competitive factors affecting the success of all of our programs are likely to be efficacy, safety and convenience.

For ORIC-533, our orally bioavailable small molecule CD73 inhibitor, we are aware of several companies developing antibodies against this target, including AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Novartis in collaboration with Surface Oncology, Incyte Corporation, Corvus Pharmaceuticals, Innate Pharma, Tracon Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with I-Mab Biopharma, Akeso, Symphogen, Innovent, Henlius Biotech and Jacobio Pharmaceuticals. Other companies, such as Arcus Biosciences, Antengene and Merck through its acquisition of Peloton Therapeutics, have small-molecule programs against this target. To our knowledge, only Antengene has an orally available, small molecule CD73 inhibitor in an active clinical trial for patients with cancer.

For ORIC-114, we are aware of two companies with an FDA approved product for patients with EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations, including Takeda and The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. We are also aware of several companies developing inhibitors against EGFR or HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations that are currently in clinical trials, including Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Daiichi Sankyo, Dizal Pharmaceuticals, Cullinan Oncology, Black Diamond Therapeutics, Bayer, Allist Pharmaceuticals and Blueprint Medicines. Additionally, Seattle Genetics has an FDA approved product for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, including patients with brain metastases. We are also aware that Dizal Pharmaceuticals is developing a brain penetrant inhibitor currently in a clinical trial for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

For ORIC-944, we are aware of several companies developing inhibitors against PRC2 via EZH2 inhibition that are currently in clinical trials, including Epizyme, Constellation Pharmaceuticals (now Morphosys), Daiichi Sankyo, Pfizer, Shanghai HaiHe Pharmaceutical and Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. To our knowledge, only Novartis has an allosteric PRC2 inhibitor in a clinical trial for patients with cancer.

Government regulation

Government authorities in the United States at the federal, state and local level and in other countries regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, marketing and export and import of drug and biological products. Generally, before a new drug can be marketed, considerable data demonstrating its quality, safety and efficacy must be obtained, organized into a format specific for each regulatory authority, submitted for review and approved by the regulatory authority.

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U.S. drug development

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA). Drugs also are subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or post-market may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, among other actions, the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, product recalls or market withdrawals, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement and civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our product candidates are considered small molecule drugs and must be approved by the FDA through the NDA process before they may be legally marketed in the United States. The process generally involves the following:

completion of extensive preclinical studies in accordance with applicable regulations, including studies conducted in accordance with GLP;

 

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;

 

approval by an independent IRB, or ethics committee at each clinical trial site before each trial may be initiated;

 

performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND regulations, good clinical practice (GCP) requirements and other clinical trial-related regulations to establish substantial evidence of the safety and efficacy of the investigational product for each proposed indication;

 

submission to the FDA of an NDA;

 

a determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to accept the filing for review;

 

satisfactory completion of a FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities where the drug will be produced to assess compliance with cGMP requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity;

 

potential FDA audit of the preclinical study and/or clinical trial sites that generated the data in support of the NDA filing;

 

FDA review and approval of the NDA, including consideration of the views of any FDA advisory committee, prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the drug in the United States; and

 

compliance with any post-approval requirements, including the potential requirement to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS), and the potential requirement to conduct post-approval studies. The data required to support an NDA are generated in two distinct developmental stages: preclinical and clinical. The preclinical and clinical testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and we cannot be certain that any approvals for any current and future product candidates will be granted on a timely basis, or at all.

Preclinical studies and IND/CTA

The preclinical developmental stage generally involves laboratory evaluations of drug chemistry, formulation and stability, as well as studies to evaluate toxicity in animals, which support subsequent clinical testing. The sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to the FDA as part of the IND. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational product to humans, and must become effective before human clinical trials may begin.

Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry and formulation, as well as in vitro and animal studies to assess the potential for adverse events and in some cases to establish a rationale for therapeutic use. The conduct of preclinical studies is subject to federal regulations and requirements, including GLP regulations for safety/toxicology studies. An IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and plans for clinical studies, among other things, to the FDA as part of an IND. Some long-term preclinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions related to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the trial on clinical hold. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any

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outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. As a result, submission of an IND may not result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to commence.

A process similar to an IND submission, review and approval is followed in filing a Clinical Trials Application (CTA) with regulatory agencies in other countries.

Clinical trials

The clinical stage of development involves the administration of the investigational product to healthy volunteers or patients under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the trial sponsor’s control, in accordance with GCP requirements, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety and assess efficacy. Each protocol, and any subsequent amendments to the protocol, must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. Furthermore, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by an IRB for each institution at which the clinical trial will be conducted to ensure that the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB must also approve the informed consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative, and must monitor the clinical trial until completed. There also are requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical trials and completed clinical trial results to public registries.

A sponsor who wishes to conduct a clinical trial outside of the United States may, but need not, obtain FDA authorization to conduct the clinical trial under an IND. If a foreign clinical trial is not conducted under an IND, the sponsor may submit data from the clinical trial to the FDA in support of an NDA. The FDA will generally accept a well-designed and well-conducted foreign clinical trial not conducted under an IND if the trial was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles contained in the Declaration of Helsinki pursuant to 21 CFR 312.120(c)(4), incorporating the 1989 version of the Declaration, or with the laws and regulations of the foreign regulatory authority where the trial was conducted, such as the EMA, whichever provides greater protection of the human subjects, and with GCP and GMP requirements, and the FDA is able to validate the data through an onsite inspection, if deemed necessary, and the practice of medicine in the foreign country is consistent with the United States.

Clinical trials in the United States generally are conducted in three sequential phases, known as Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3, and may overlap.

Phase 1 clinical trials generally involve a small number of healthy volunteers or disease-affected patients who are initially exposed to a single dose and then multiple doses of the product candidate. The primary purpose of these clinical trials is to assess the metabolism, pharmacologic action, tolerability and safety of the drug.

 

Phase 2 clinical trials involve studies in disease-affected patients to determine the dose and dosing schedule required to produce the desired benefits. At the same time, safety and further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information is collected, possible adverse effects and safety risks are identified, and a preliminary evaluation of efficacy is conducted.

 

Phase 3 clinical trials generally involve a large number of patients at multiple sites and are designed to provide the data necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of the product for its intended use, its safety in use and to establish the overall benefit/risk relationship of the product and provide an adequate basis for product approval. These trials may include comparisons with placebo and/or other comparator treatments. The duration of treatment is often extended to mimic the actual use of a product during marketing.

 

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, are conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical trials as a condition of approval of an NDA.

 

Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials, among other information, must be submitted at least annually to the FDA. Sponsor is also responsible for submitting written IND safety reports, including reports of serious and unexpected suspected adverse events, findings from other studies suggesting a significant risk to humans exposed to the drug, findings from animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk for human subjects, and any clinically significant increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure.

 

Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that

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the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether a trial may move forward at designated check-points based on access to certain data from the trial.

 

Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal safety studies and also must develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process, as performed by the manufacturing facility, must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of our product candidates. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that our product candidates do not undergo unacceptable deterioration over their labeled shelf life.

NDA review process

Following completion of the clinical trials, data is analyzed to assess whether the investigational product is safe and effective for the proposed indicated use or uses. The results of preclinical studies and clinical trials are then submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA, along with proposed labeling, chemistry and manufacturing information to ensure product quality and other relevant data. In short, the NDA is a request for approval to market the drug in the United States for one or more specified indications and must contain proof of safety and efficacy for a drug.

The application must include both negative and ambiguous results of preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as positive findings. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and efficacy of a product’s use or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety and efficacy of the investigational product to the satisfaction of FDA. FDA approval of an NDA must be obtained before a drug may be legally marketed in the United States.

Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), as amended, each NDA must be accompanied by a user fee. FDA adjusts the PDUFA user fees on an annual basis. PDUFA also imposes an annual program fee for each marketed human drug. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances, including a waiver of the application fee for the first application filed by a small business. Additionally, no user fees are assessed on NDAs for products designated as orphan drugs, unless the product also includes a non-orphan indication.

The FDA reviews all submitted NDAs before it accepts them for filing, and may request additional information rather than accepting the NDA for filing. The FDA must make a decision on accepting an NDA for filing within 60 days of receipt. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the NDA. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under PDUFA, the FDA has 10 months, from the filing date, in which to complete its initial review of a new molecular-entity NDA and respond to the applicant, and six months from the filing date of a new molecular-entity NDA designated for priority review. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates for standard and priority NDAs, and the review process is often extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification.

Before approving an NDA, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether they comply with cGMP requirements. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. The FDA also may audit data from clinical trials to ensure compliance with GCP requirements. Additionally, the FDA may refer applications for novel drug products or drug products which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions, if any. The FDA is not bound by recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making decisions on approval. The FDA likely will reanalyze the clinical trial data, which could result in extensive discussions between the FDA and the applicant during the review process. After the FDA evaluates an NDA, it will issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application will not be approved in its present form. A Complete Response Letter usually describes all of the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by the FDA. The Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data, additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies and/or manufacturing. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even

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if such data and information are submitted, the FDA may decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data obtained from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data.

Orphan drugs

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biological product intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making the product available in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product.

Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in or shorten the duration of the regulatory review and approval process.

If a product that has orphan designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease or condition for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity, which means that the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same indication for seven years from the date of such approval, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity by means of greater effectiveness, greater safety or providing a major contribution to patient care or in instances of drug supply issues. However, competitors may receive approval of either a different product for the same indication or the same product for a different indication but that could be used off-label in the orphan indication. Orphan drug exclusivity also could block the approval of one of our products for seven years if a competitor obtains approval before we do for the same product, as defined by the FDA, for the same indication we are seeking approval, or if a product candidate is determined to be contained within the scope of the competitor’s product for the same indication. If one of our products designated as an orphan drug receives marketing approval for an indication broader than that which is designated, it may not be entitled to orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug status in the European Union has similar, but not identical, requirements and benefits.

Expedited development and review programs

The FDA has a fast track program that is intended to expedite or facilitate the process for reviewing new drugs that meet certain criteria. Specifically, new drugs are eligible for fast track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and preclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the condition. Fast track designation applies to both the product and the specific indication for which it is being studied. The sponsor can request the FDA to designate the product for fast track status any time before receiving NDA approval, but ideally no later than the pre-NDA meeting with the FDA.

Any product submitted to the FDA for marketing, including under a fast track program, may be eligible for other types of FDA programs intended to expedite development and review, such as priority review and accelerated approval. Any product is eligible for priority review if it treats a serious or life-threatening condition and, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety and effectiveness compared to available therapies.

A product may also be eligible for accelerated approval, if it treats a serious or life-threatening condition and generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies. In addition, it must demonstrate an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality (IMM), which is reasonably likely to predict an effect on IMM or other clinical benefit. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a drug receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well controlled post-marketing clinical trials. FDA may withdraw drug approval or require changes to the labeled indication of the drug if confirmatory post-market trials fail to verify clinical benefit or do not demonstrate sufficient clinical benefit to justify the risks associated with the drug. If the FDA concludes that a drug shown to be effective can be safely used only if distribution or use is restricted, it may require such post-marketing restrictions as it deems necessary to assure safe use of the product.

Additionally, a drug may be eligible for designation as a breakthrough therapy if the product is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs or biologics, to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product may demonstrate substantial improvement over currently approved therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints. The benefits of breakthrough therapy designation include the same benefits as fast track designation, plus intensive guidance from the FDA to ensure an efficient drug development program. Fast track designation, priority review, accelerated approval and breakthrough therapy designation do not change the standards for approval, but may expedite the development or approval process.

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Post-approval requirements

Following approval of a new product, the manufacturer and the approved product are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, monitoring and record-keeping requirements, requirements to report adverse events and comply with promotion and advertising requirements, which include restrictions on promoting drugs for unapproved uses or patient populations, known as “off-label promotion,” and limitations on industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities. Although physicians may prescribe legally available drugs for off-label uses, manufacturers may not market or promote such uses. Prescription drug promotional materials must be submitted to the FDA in conjunction with their first use. Further, if there are any modifications to the drug, including changes in indications, labeling or manufacturing processes or facilities, the applicant may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new NDA or NDA supplement, which may require the development of additional data or preclinical studies and clinical trials.

The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for REMS, to assure the safe use of the product. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription or dispensing of products. Product approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory standards or if problems occur following initial marketing.

The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information, imposition of post-market studies or clinical studies to assess new safety risks or imposition of distribution restrictions or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market, or product recalls;

 

fines, warning letters, or holds on post-approval clinical studies;

 

refusal of the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications;

 

suspension or revocation of product approvals;
product seizure or detention;

 

refusal to permit the import or export of products; or

 

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of products that are placed on the market. Drugs may be promoted only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability.

FDA regulation of companion diagnostics

A therapeutic product may rely upon an in vitro companion diagnostic for use in selecting the patients that will be more likely to respond to that therapy. If an in vitro diagnostic is essential to the safe and effective use of the therapeutic product and if the manufacturer wishes to market or distribute such diagnostic for use as a companion diagnostic, then the FDA will require separate approval or clearance of the diagnostic as a companion diagnostic to the therapeutic product. According to FDA guidance, an unapproved or uncleared companion diagnostic device used to make treatment decisions in clinical trials of a drug generally will be considered an investigational medical device unless it is employed for an intended use for which the device is already approved or cleared. If used to make critical treatment decisions, such as patient selection, the diagnostic device generally will be considered a significant risk device under the FDA’s Investigational Device Exemption, or IDE, regulations. The sponsor of the diagnostic device will be required to comply with the IDE regulations for clinical studies involving the investigational diagnostic device. According to the guidance, if a diagnostic device and a drug are to be studied together to support their respective approvals, both products can be studied in the same clinical trial, if the trial meets both the requirements of the IDE regulations and the IND regulations. The guidance provides that depending on the details of the clinical trial protocol, the investigational product(s), and subjects involved, a sponsor may seek to submit an IDE alone (e.g., if the drug has already been approved by FDA and is used consistent with its approved labeling), or both an IND and an IDE.

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Pursuing FDA approval/clearance of an in vitro companion diagnostic would require either a pre-market notification, also called 510(k) clearance, or a pre-market approval, or PMA, or a de novo classification for that diagnostic. The review of companion diagnostics involves coordination of review with the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

510(k) clearance process

To obtain 510(k) clearance, a pre-market notification is submitted to the FDA demonstrating that the proposed device is substantially equivalent to a previously cleared 510(k) device or a device that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976 for which the FDA has not yet required the submission of a PMA application. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process may take three to 12 months from the date the application is submitted and filed with the FDA, but may take longer if FDA requests additional information, among other reasons. In some cases, the FDA may require clinical data to support substantial equivalence. In reviewing a pre-market notification submission, the FDA may request additional information, which may significantly prolong the review process. Notwithstanding compliance with all these requirements, clearance is never assured.

After a device receives 510(k) clearance, any subsequent modification of the device that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, will require a new 510(k) clearance or require a PMA. In addition, the FDA may make substantial changes to industry requirements, including which devices are eligible for 510(k) clearance, which may significantly affect the process.

De novo classification process

If a new medical device does not qualify for the 510(k) pre-market notification process because no predicate device to which it is substantially equivalent can be identified, the device is automatically classified into Class III. The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 established a different route to market for low to moderate risk medical devices that are automatically placed into Class III due to the absence of a predicate device, called the “Request for Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation,” or the de novo classification process. This process allows a manufacturer whose novel device is automatically classified into Class III to request down-classification of its medical device into Class I or Class II on the basis that the device presents low or moderate risk, rather than requiring the submission and approval of a PMA. If the manufacturer seeks reclassification into Class II, the manufacturer must include a draft proposal for special controls that are necessary to provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the medical device. The FDA may reject the reclassification petition if it identifies a legally marketed predicate device that would be appropriate for a 510(k) or determines that the device is not low to moderate risk and requires PMA or that general controls would be inadequate to control the risks and special controls cannot be developed.

Obtaining FDA marketing authorization, de novo down-classification, or approval for medical devices is expensive and uncertain, and may take several years, and generally requires significant scientific and clinical data.

PMA process

The PMA process, including the gathering of clinical and nonclinical data and the submission to and review by the FDA, can take several years or longer. The applicant must prepare and provide the FDA with reasonable assurance of the device’s safety and effectiveness, including information about the device and its components regarding, among other things, device design, manufacturing, and labeling. PMA applications are subject to an application fee. In addition, PMAs for medical devices must generally include the results from extensive preclinical and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of the device for each indication for which FDA approval is sought. In particular, for a diagnostic, the applicant must demonstrate that the diagnostic produces reproducible results. As part of the PMA review, the FDA will typically inspect the manufacturer’s facilities for compliance with the Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which imposes extensive testing, control, documentation, and other quality assurance and GMP requirements.

Other U.S. regulatory matters

Our current and future arrangements with healthcare providers, third-party payors, customers, and others may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, as well as, sell, market, and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing approval. The applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include, but are not limited to:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which makes it illegal for any person, including a prescription drug or medical device manufacturer (or a party acting on its behalf), to knowingly and willfully solicit, receive, offer or pay any remuneration that is intended to induce or reward referrals, including the purchase, recommendation, order or prescription of a

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particular drug, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. Moreover, the Patient

 

Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the ACA), provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act;

 

the federal false claims, including the civil False Claims Act that can be enforced by private citizens through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, and civil monetary penalties prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government, and/or impose exclusions from federal health care programs and/or penalties for parties who engage in such prohibited conduct;

 

the Federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), prohibits, among other things, executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

 

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and their implementing regulations also impose obligations on covered entities such as health insurance plans, healthcare clearinghouses, and certain health care providers and their respective business associates and their covered subcontractors, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

 

the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires applicable manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to annually report to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) information regarding certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians, as defined by such law, and teaching hospitals as well as information regarding ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members; effective January 1, 2022, such reporting obligations for payments and transfers of value made in 2021 to cover recipients will be expanded to include physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants, and certified nurse-midwives; and

 

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers, state laws that require biotechnology companies to comply with the biotechnology industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government; state and local laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures and require the registration of their sales representatives, state laws that require biotechnology companies to report information on the pricing of certain drug products, and state and foreign laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Pricing and rebate programs must also comply with the Medicaid rebate requirements of the U.S. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 and more recent requirements in the ACA. If products are made available to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule of the General Services Administration, additional laws and requirements apply. Manufacturing, sales, promotion and other activities also are potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws. In addition, the distribution of pharmaceutical and/or medical device products is subject to additional requirements and regulations, including extensive record-keeping, licensing, storage and security requirements intended to prevent the unauthorized sale of pharmaceutical and/or medical device products. Products must meet applicable child-resistant packaging requirements under the U.S. Poison Prevention Packaging Act as well as other applicable consumer safety requirements.

The failure to comply with any of these laws or regulatory requirements subjects firms to possible legal or regulatory action. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements can result in significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, injunctions, requests for recall, seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of product approvals or refusal to allow a firm to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts.

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U.S. patent-term restoration and marketing exclusivity

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of FDA approval of any future product candidates, some of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits restoration of the patent term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and FDA regulatory review process. Patent-term restoration, however, cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The patent-term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND or the issue date of the patent, whichever is later, and the submission date of an NDA plus the time between the submission date of an NDA or the issue date of the patent, whichever is later, and the approval of that application, except that the review period is reduced by any time during which the applicant failed to exercise due diligence. Only one patent applicable to an approved drug is eligible for the extension and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. The USPTO, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration. In the future, we may apply for restoration of patent term for our currently owned or licensed patents to add patent life beyond its current expiration date, depending on the expected length of the clinical trials and other factors involved in the filing of the relevant NDA.

Market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA also can delay the submission or the approval of certain applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA), or a 505(b)(2) NDA submitted by another company for a generic version of such drug where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement with respect to one or more patents listed for the drug in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations publication. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for a NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness or generate such data themselves.

European Union and UK drug development

In addition to regulations in the United States, we must obtain the requisite approvals from regulatory authorities in foreign countries prior to the commencement of clinical studies or marketing of the product in those countries. Certain countries outside the U.S. have a similar process that requires the submission of a clinical study application much like the IND prior to the commencement of human clinical studies. The approval process varies from country to country and the time may be longer or shorter that that required to obtain FDA approval. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary greatly from country to country and may require us to perform additional pre-clinical or clinical testing.

European Union drug review and approval

Pharmaceutical products in the European Union are subject to regulation under comprehensive legislation enacted by the European Commission in the European Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2001/83/EC), as amended. Centrally authorized products are also regulated by Regulation (EC) No. 726/2004. This legislation is binding on all Member States together with ancillary legislation governing research. In the UK, the main legislative texts relating to human medicines is the Medicines Act 1968 and the Human Medicines Regulation 2012.

The European Union system for authorization of medicinal products for human use offers several routes: the centralized procedure, the decentralized procedure, and the mutual recognition procedure, as well as domestic national routes. The centralized procedure provides for the grant of a single marketing authorization that is valid for all 27 European Union Member States as well as the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The centralized procedure is mandatory for certain categories of investigational products, including human products containing a new active substance indicated for the treatment of certain diseases, including cancer, AIDS, diabetes and neurodegenerative illness; orphan medicinal products; and medicinal products manufactured using biotechnological processes. Applications for marketing authorization for such medicines must be submitted to the EMA, in which the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) is generally responsible for conducting the initial assessment of a product.

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The decentralized and mutual recognition procedures are applicable to the majority of conventional medicinal products and are both based on the principle of recognition of a marketing authorization by one or more Member States. The decentralized procedure is available for applicants who wish to market a product in various European Union Member States where such product has not received marketing approval in any European Union Member State before. In this procedure, an application for marketing authorization is submitted simultaneously in several Member States, one of them being chosen as the “Reference Member State.” At the end of the procedure, national marketing authorizations are granted in the Reference and in the concerned Member States. The mutual recognition procedure is compulsory when a medicinal product has already received a marketing authorization in one Member State and is to be marketed in a Member State other than that in which it was first authorized. Any national marketing authorization granted by a European Union Member State's national authority can be used to support an application for its mutual recognition by other Member States. Marketing authorization applications can also be submitted directly to the Member State's national competent authority under the national route (if the centralized route is not compulsory).

The UK is no longer a member of the EU, but EU law remains applicable in Northern Ireland. There are a number of new marketing authorization routes available in the UK, Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) or Northern Ireland, in addition to the national procedure, which are broadly categorized as either (1) national routes (i.e. the innovative licensing and access procedure (ILAP), the national procedure, rolling review, EC Decision Procedure (ECDP), the MR/DC reliance procedure and unfettered access from Northern Ireland); or (2) international routes (i.e. Access Consortium to market a medicine in the UK, Australia, Canada, Singapore and/or Switzerland; or the Project Orbis program for cancer treatments). The application procedure will depend on the relevant procedure chosen.

All granted centrally authorized marketing authorizations automatically became Great Britain (GB) marketing authorizations on 1 January 2021. Though there are several ways to obtain a marketing authorization for GB (and Northern Ireland) discussed above, the EDRCP is available for marketing authorizations approved under the centralized procedure. Under this procedure the UK's regulator, the MHRA, can rely on the decision of the European Commission on the approval of a new marketing authorization under centralized procedure for a period of two years from January 1, 2021, when determining an application for a GB marketing authorization. Applicants submit a letter of intent to submit an EDRCP to the MHRA at least 4 weeks before the submission of the application for the EDRCP marketing authorization application. The marketing authorization application is submitted after receipt of the positive opinion from the CHMP.

The objective of the EMA is the comprehensive evaluation of benefit/risk profile of a new medicinal product going through the centralized procedure. This evaluation involves showing that the product has significant efficacy and safety, together with a satisfactory plan for risk management post-marketing. The CHMP is the EMA’s expert committee responsible for human medicinal products. The CHMP is responsible for conducting the initial review of centrally authorized marketing authorization applications and for assessing modifications or extensions (variations) to an existing marketing authorization. It also considers the recommendations of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee on the safety of medicines on the market and when necessary, recommends to the European Commission changes to a medicine’s marketing authorization, or its suspension or withdrawal from the market. The marketing authorization application is similar to the NDA in the United States. All application procedures require an application in the common technical document (CTD), which includes the submission of detailed information about the manufacturing and quality of the product, and non-clinical and clinical trial information. The main scientific principle used by the CHMP in the evaluation of medicinal products is the benefit/risk ratio based on quality, efficacy, safety, and risk management considerations. The CHMP assesses whether the data it reviews comply with the ICH-harmonized Good Practices published for GCP, GMP and good laboratory practice (GLP). The CHMP also considers whether studies concluding efficacy and safety of products have sufficient statistical power.

Marketing authorizations for the UK are submitted to the MHRA. As the Medicinal Products Directive is transposed into domestic law, the standards of clinical efficacy, safety, chemical control and manufacture as at 31 December 2020 (the end of the transition period for the UK’s exit from the EU) are retained. As Northern Ireland continues to apply EU law, medicines regulation for Great Britain is likely to be closely aligned with the EU for some time.

Two recent developments have been introduced which further expand the European regulatory framework: the Falsified Medicines Directive and the Pharmacovigilance Directive. The Falsified Medicines Directive obliges manufacturers of medicinal products to audit their suppliers of active substances to ensure compliance with GMP. It also introduces a new obligation on product manufacturers to inform the competent authority (e.g., ANSM) and the marketing authorization holder if they become aware that these products may be falsified, whether they are being distributed through the legitimate supply chain or by illegal means. The Pharmacovigilance Directive obliges marketing authorization holders to monitor the safety of authorized products and detect any change in their risk-benefit profile. A new pan-European clinical trial data information database has been created that will be complementary to the database established for pharmacovigilance (Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 with respect to centrally authorized medicinal products). In addition, Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 520/2012 outlines the practical implications for marketing authorization holders, national competent authorities, and the EMA. Also, Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 357/2014 on post-authorization efficacy studies specifies the situations in which such studies may be required. Post-authorization

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efficacy studies may be required where concerns relating to some aspects of efficacy of the medicinal product are identified and can be resolved only after the medicinal product has been marketed, or where the understanding of the disease, the clinical methodology or the use of the medicinal product under real-life conditions indicate that previous efficacy evaluations might have to be revised significantly. Brexit will disrupt the operation of pre- and post-authorization clinical trial infrastructure. The rules around GMP and pharmacovigilance in the UK currently remain similar to the EU requirements. However, the Falsified Medicines Directive will not apply in Great Britain though it is likely that the UK will implement a procedure to minimize the risk of falsified medicines.

Clinical trials in the European Union are regulated under European Council Directive 2001/20/EC (Clinical Trials Directive) on the implementation of GCP in the conduct of clinical trials of medicinal products for human use. The Clinical Trials Directive requires the sponsor of an investigational medicinal product to obtain a CTA, much like an IND in the United States, from the national competent authority of a European Union Member State in which the clinical trial is to be conducted. The application for CTA must satisfy detailed requirements for the protection of trial subjects including requirements relating to consent and specific rules for minors and adults unable to consent by reason of incapacity. The CTA application must be accompanied by an investigational medicinal product dossier with supporting information prescribed by the Council Directive and corresponding national laws of the Member States and further detailed in applicable guidance, including the European Commission Communication 2010/C 82/01. A clinical trial may only be commenced after an Ethics Committee has given its approval.

A sponsor of a clinical trial must also follow certain procedures, including obtaining a unique EudraCT number by entering specified relevant information in the EudraCT Community Clinical Trial System. In addition, Member States require that the manufacture and/or importation of investigational medicinal products be authorized. Sponsors of investigational medicinal products must ensure compliance with, among other things, GCP and good manufacturing practice (GMP) as well as requirements pertaining to safety reporting.

In April 2014, Regulation EU No 536/2014 (Clinical Trials Regulation) was adopted, which comes into application on January 31, 2022 and repeals the existing EU Clinical Trials Directive. The Clinical Trials Regulation is intended to simplify the current rules for clinical trial authorization and standards of performance. For instance, there will be a streamlined application procedure via a single-entry point, a European Union portal and database. The implementation of the Clinical Trials Regulation depends on confirmation of full functionality of the Clinical Trials Information System (CTIS) through an independent audit, which commenced in September 2020. The system is currently planned to go live in January 2022. The new clinical trial portal and database will be maintained by the EMA in collaboration with the European Commission and the European Union Member States. The objectives of the new Regulation include consistent rules for conducting trials throughout the European Union, consistent data standards and adverse events listing, and consistent information on the authorization status. Additionally, information on the conduct and results of each clinical trial carried out in the European Union will be made publicly available.

The main legislation that applies to clinical trials in the UK is the UK Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004, which transposes the Clinical Trials Directive into domestic law. Consequently, the requirements and obligations that relate to the conduct of clinical trials in the UK currently remain largely aligned with the EU position. A CTA will be required to conduct a clinical trial in the UK, together with Ethics Committee approval. However, the sponsor of a clinical trial in the UK must be established in the UK or a country on an approved list currently limited to the EU Member States plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway) or appoint a legal representative who is established on one of the aforementioned countries. Clinical trials should also be registered on an established international register such as ISRCTN registry or ClinicalTrials.gov. The UK also requires the manufacture and/or importation of investigational medicinal products to be authorized. There is no mutual recognition agreement between the UK and EU on GMP, so medicines manufactured in the UK would be subject to GMP release in the EU.

Similar to the U.S. patent term-restoration, Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs) serve as an extension to a patent right in Europe for up to five years. SPCs apply to specific pharmaceutical products to offset the loss of patent protection due to the lengthy testing and clinical trials these products require prior to obtaining regulatory marketing approval.

Coverage and reimbursement

Sales of our products will depend, in part, on the extent to which our products will be covered by third-party payors, such as government health programs, commercial insurance and managed healthcare organizations. There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, for example, principal decisions about reimbursement for new products are typically made by CMS. CMS decides whether and to what extent a new product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private third-party payors often follow CMS’s decisions regarding coverage and reimbursement to a substantial degree. However, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists. Accordingly, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for any of our products will be made on a payor-by-payor basis.

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Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Further, such payors are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost effectiveness of medical product candidates. There may be especially significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific product candidates on an approved list, known as a formulary, which might not include all FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. We may need to conduct expensive pharmaco-economic studies to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost effectiveness of our products. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained.

In addition, companion diagnostic tests require coverage and reimbursement separate and apart from the coverage and reimbursement for their companion pharmaceutical or biological products. Similar challenges to obtaining coverage and reimbursement, applicable to pharmaceutical or biological products, will apply to companion diagnostics.

In addition, in most foreign countries, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. The requirements governing drug pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country. For example, the European Union provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. A member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of our products. Historically, products launched in the European Union do not follow price structures of the United States and generally prices tend to be significantly lower.

Healthcare reform

The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA), established the Medicare Part D program to provide a voluntary prescription drug benefit to Medicare beneficiaries. Under Part D, Medicare beneficiaries may enroll in prescription drug plans offered by private entities that provide coverage of outpatient prescription drugs. Unlike Medicare Part A and B, Part D coverage is not standardized. While all Medicare drug plans must give at least a standard level of coverage set by Medicare, Part D prescription drug plan sponsors are not required to pay for all covered Part D drugs, and each drug plan can develop its own drug formulary that identifies which drugs it will cover and at what tier or level. However, Part D prescription drug formularies must include drugs within each therapeutic category and class of covered Part D drugs, though not necessarily all the drugs in each category or class. Any formulary used by a Part D prescription drug plan must be developed and reviewed by a pharmacy and therapeutic committee. Government payment for some of the costs of prescription drugs may increase demand for products for which we receive marketing approval. However, any negotiated prices for our products covered by a Part D prescription drug plan likely will be lower than the prices we might otherwise obtain. Moreover, while the MMA applies only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private third-party payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own payment rates.

The United States government, state legislatures and foreign governments have shown significant interest in implementing cost containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid healthcare costs, including price-controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs. For example, the ACA substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and continues to significantly impact the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The ACA contains provisions that may reduce the profitability of drug products through increased rebates for drugs reimbursed by Medicaid programs, extension of Medicaid rebates to Medicaid managed care plans, mandatory discounts for certain Medicare Part D beneficiaries and annual fees based on pharmaceutical companies’ share of sales to federal health care programs. The Medicaid Drug Rebate Program requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to enter into and have in effect a national rebate agreement with the HHS Secretary as a condition for states to receive federal matching funds for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs furnished to Medicaid patients. The ACA made several changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, including increasing pharmaceutical manufacturers’ rebate liability by raising the minimum basic Medicaid rebate on most branded prescription drugs from 15.1% of average manufacturer price (AMP), to 23.1% of AMP and adding a new rebate calculation for “line extensions.” The ACA also expanded the universe of Medicaid utilization subject to drug rebates by requiring pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay rebates on Medicaid managed care utilization and by enlarging the population potentially eligible for Medicaid drug benefits. Additionally, for a drug product to receive federal reimbursement under the Medicaid or Medicare Part B programs or to be sold directly to U.S. government agencies, the manufacturer must extend discounts to entities eligible to participate in the 340B drug pricing program. The required 340B discount on a given product is calculated based on the AMP and Medicaid rebate amounts reported by the manufacturer.

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Since its enactment, there have been legislative and judicial efforts to repeal, replace, or change some or all of the ACA. For example, on December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law new federal tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act) which includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate.” In addition, the 2020 federal spending package permanently, eliminated, effective January 1, 2020, the ACA-mandated “Cadillac” tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health coverage and medical device tax and, effective January 1, 2021, also eliminates the health insurer tax. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (the BBA), among other things, amended the ACA, effective January 1, 2019, to close the coverage gap in most Medicare Part D drug plans. In December 2018, CMS published a new final rule permitting further collections and payments to and from certain ACA-qualified health plans and health insurance issuers under the ACA risk adjustment program in response to the outcome of federal district court litigation regarding the method CMS uses to determine this risk adjustment. On April 27, 2020, the United States Supreme Court reversed a federal circuit decision that previously upheld Congress’ denial of $12 billion in “risk corridor” funding. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Act. Additionally, on December 18, 2019, the U.S Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the District Court ruling that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. In June 2021, the United States Supreme Court held that Texas and other challengers had no legal standing to challenge the ACA, dismissing the case without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Accordingly, the ACA remains in effect in its current form. It is unclear how this Supreme Court decision, future litigation, and healthcare measures promulgated by the Biden administration will impact the implementation of the ACA, our business, financial condition and results of operations. Complying with any new legislation or reversing changes implemented under the ACA could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.

Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, effective April 1, 2013, which will stay in effect through 2030 with the exception of a temporary suspension implemented under various COVID-19 relief legislation from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022, followed by 1% payment adjustment from April 1 to June 30, 2022 and resumption of the 2% adjustment beginning July 1, 2022, unless additional congressional action is taken. It is possible that additional governmental action will be taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business. In January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These new laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on customers for our drugs, if approved, and accordingly, our financial operations.

Additionally, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. In 2020, under the Trump administration, HHS and CMS issued final rules in November and December of 2020 that were expected to impact, among others, price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers, manufacturer price reporting requirements under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, including regulations that affect manufacturer-sponsored patient assistance programs subject to pharmacy benefit manager accumulator programs and Best Price reporting related to certain value-based purchasing arrangements. Multiple lawsuits have been brought against HHS challenging various aspects of the rules. The impact of these lawsuits as well as legislative, executive, and administrative actions of the current administration on us and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole is currently unknown. Under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, effective January 1, 2024, the statutory cap on Medicaid Drug Rebate Programs rebates that manufacturers pay to state Medicaid programs will be eliminated. Elimination of this cap may require pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay more in rebates than it receives on the sale of products, which could have material impact on our business. Further, in July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order, “Promoting Competition in the American Economy,” with multiple provisions aimed at increasing competition for prescription drugs. Congress is considering legislation that, if passed, could have significant impact on prices of prescription drugs covered by Medicare, including limitations on drug price increases and allowing Medicare to negotiate drug pricing for select drugs. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our product candidates if approved.

At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. For example, a number of states are considering or have recently enacted state drug price transparency and reporting laws that could substantially increase our compliance burdens and expose us to greater liability under such

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state laws once we begin commercialization. These and other health reform measures that are implemented may have a material adverse effect on our operations.

We are unable to predict the future course of federal or state healthcare legislation in the United States directed at broadening the availability of healthcare and containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. These and any further changes in the law or regulatory framework that reduce our revenue or increase our costs could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. It is also possible that additional governmental action will be taken to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations, and other payors of healthcare services and medical products to contain or reduce costs of healthcare and/or impose price controls may adversely affect the demand for our product candidates, if approved, and our ability to achieve or maintain profitability.

Environmental, Social and Governance

We believe that sustainable operations are both financially and operationally beneficial to our business, and critical to the health of the communities in which we operate. Our operations are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules and regulations relating to environmental concerns, including air emissions, wastewater discharges, solid and hazardous waste management activities, and the safety of our employees. We endeavor to take actions necessary to comply with such regulations. We seek to minimize our resource footprint at our locations with a focus on managing waste, water and energy consumption.

Employees and Human Capital

As of December 31, 2021, we had 78 full-time employees, of which 55 were engaged in research and development activities. Substantially all of our employees are located in South San Francisco, California and San Diego, California. None of our employees are represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees, advisors and consultants. The principal purposes of our equity and cash incentive plans are to attract, retain and reward personnel through the granting of stock-based and cash-based compensation awards, in order to increase stockholder value and the success of our company by motivating such individuals to perform to the best of their abilities and achieve our objectives. In addition, we are committed to offering a comprehensive suite of benefits ranging from medical, dental, and vision coverage, disability, remote work flexibility, employee stock purchase, and life insurance programs. All employees are also eligible to participate in a Company sponsored defined contribution plan created under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code that provides for the Company to match a portion of contributions by participating employees.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in August 2014. Our principal executive offices are located at 240 E. Grand Avenue, 2nd Floor, South San Francisco, California 94080. Our telephone number is (650) 388-5600. Our website address is www.oricpharma.com. Information contained on the website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other filings we make with the SEC.

We may use our website (www.oricpharma.com), press releases, public conference calls, public webcasts, Twitter and LinkedIn as means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. We also make available on or through our website certain reports and amendments to those reports that we file with or furnish to the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act). These include our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and our current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. We make this information available on or through our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains our SEC filings. The address for the SEC website is https://www.sec.gov.

We use the ORIC Pharmaceuticals logo and other marks as trademarks in the United States and other countries. This periodic report contains references to our trademarks and service marks and to those belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this periodic report, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the TM symbol, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other entities’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Risk factors

You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our financial statements and related notes and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and in our other public filings in evaluating our business. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and the market price of our common stock.

 

Risk factor summary

 

The following summarizes the most material risks that make an investment in our securities risky or speculative. If any of the following risks occur or persist, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed and the market price of our common stock could significantly decline:

 

Risks related to our financial position and need for additional capital

our limited operating history;
our past and anticipated future net losses;
uncertainty related to our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability; and
our need for substantial additional capital to finance our operations.

 

Risks related to discovery, development and commercialization of our product candidates

our substantial dependence on our product candidates;
our challenges in discovering, developing and commercializing additional product candidates;
limitations in regulatory approval processes and product candidate approvals;
our clinical trials that may fail to satisfactorily demonstrate safety and efficacy;
our product candidates that may cause significant adverse events, toxicities or other undesirable side effects;
potentially negative clinical trial results and challenges related to FDA, EMA and other regulatory requirements;
deficiencies in audits and verification procedures of our clinical trial data;
adverse effects due to third parties investigating the same product candidates as us in different territories;
potential delays or difficulties in enrollment and/or maintenance of patients in clinical trials;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations;
our inability to develop effective companion diagnostic tests for our product candidates;
unexpected difficulties in developing our potential programs;
profitability challenges related to our focus on developing our product candidates for particular indications;
significant competition in the markets in which we operate;
production difficulties encountered by our third-party manufacturers;
changes in methods of product candidate manufacturing or formulation;
market unacceptance of our product candidates in the medical community;
limited market opportunities for our product candidates;
our inability to augment our product pipeline through acquisitions and in-licenses;
potential for unfavorable third-party coverage and reimbursement practices of our product candidates; and
limitations of our product liability and insurance coverage.

 

Risks related to regulatory, legal and other compliance matters

difficulties in our ability to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates;
FDA, EMA and other regulatory authorities’ unacceptance of data from trials conducted outside their jurisdiction;
our inability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates in various jurisdictions;
burdens related to post-marketing regulatory requirements and oversight of our product candidates;
impacts of regulatory authorities’ enforcement of laws and regulations prohibiting promotion of off-label uses;
challenges related to FDA approval of required companion diagnostic tests;
challenges related to our ability to obtain Fast Track designation from the FDA for our product candidates;
limitations to our ability to obtain orphan drug designation or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for our product candidates;
any delays or barriers to secure approval for accelerated registration pathways;
changes to current regulations and future legislation that impact us adversely;
inadequate funding of regulatory agencies that may hinder timely product development or commercialization;

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potential misconduct or noncompliance with regulatory standards by our employees and certain third parties;
any potential incompliance with U.S. healthcare laws and requirements;
any potential incompliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations;
any potential incompliance with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, export, trade sanctions and import laws or regulations; and
any potential incompliance with California laws or The Nasdaq Global Select Market (Nasdaq) rules governing diversity of our board of directors.

 

 

Risks related to employee matters and management of our growth

challenges to our ability to attract and retain highly skilled executive officers and employees;
difficulties in our ability to sell or market our product candidates;
our potential inability to grow and manage growth of our organization;
security or data privacy breaches or incidents impacting our internal systems or those of commercial third parties;
natural disasters and other catastrophic events that may cause damage or disruption;
the Securities and Exchange Commission civil enforcement action against one of our officers;
our potential inability to use our net operating losses and tax credits to offset future taxable income;
U.S. federal income tax reform and additional effort and expenses incurred as a result;
complexities related to international marketing of our product candidates;
the military conflict in Ukraine, and any resulting trade war, could result in increased manufacturing costs; and
inflation may adversely affect us by increasing our costs.

 

Risks related to intellectual property

challenges to our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technologies;
the potentially narrow scope of patent protection we receive;
potential threats to our competitive advantage;
our ability to operate without infringing intellectual property rights and claims of infringement by third parties;
our potential inability to obtain or maintain rights to our product candidates through acquisitions and in-licenses;
costs associated with protecting or enforcing our patents and our licensors’ patents;
intellectual property litigation that may lead to unfavorable publicity;
unfavorable outcomes from necessary derivation proceedings;
patent reform legislation and related uncertainties and costs;
changes in U.S. and international intellectual property laws and related challenges;
claims challenging ownership of our intellectual property, including internationally;
patent terms and access to extensions that may not adequately protect our competitive position;
our patent protection and dependence on compliance with various regulations;
potentially limited name recognition in our markets that depend on protection of our trademarks and trade names;
difficulties in protecting confidentiality of our trade secrets;
claims of wrongful disclosure of our confidential information or trade secrets;
claims of wrongful hiring or disclosure or use of competitors’ confidential information or trade secrets;
our product development and commercialization rights that are subject to unfavorable terms and conditions of licensors;
potential business relationship disruptions due to failure to comply with license agreement obligations;
our patent protection and prosecution that may be dependent on third parties; and
intellectual property discovered through government funding and potential limits on our exclusive rights.

 

Risks related to dependence on third parties

our dependence on third parties for production, preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates;
acquisitions or strategic partnerships that may increase capital requirements, dilution and debt;
failure to establish commercially reasonable collaborations; and
difficulties related to collaborations for development and commercialization of product candidates.

 

Risks related to the securities markets and ownership of our common stock

market conditions and price that may limit your ability to sell our common stock;
the volatility of our stock price;
adverse or misleading industry analyst publications regarding our business or market;
significant fluctuations in our operating results;
principal stockholders and management that may exert significant control over stockholder approval matters;

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large sales of our stock that could cause our stock price to fall;
limitations related to our status as an emerging growth company and our transition after such status;
failure of our internal controls that could impair our ability to produce accurate financial statements;
limitations of our disclosure controls and procedures;
liabilities related to securities litigation;
our intention not to pay dividends;
provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that may prevent or delay a change in control; and
exclusive forum provisions in our bylaws that may limit stockholder ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum.

 

Risks related to our financial position and need for additional capital

We have a limited operating history, have not initiated or completed any large-scale or pivotal clinical trials, and have no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate our current business and likelihood of success and viability.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. We commenced operations in 2014, have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue. Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We have initiated clinical trials for a limited number of our product candidates. To date, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to research and development activities, including with respect to the preclinical and clinical development of ORIC-101, ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and our other future product candidates, in-licensing of external programs, business planning, establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, hiring personnel, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations.

We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully initiate and complete any large-scale or pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial-scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. As a result, it may be more difficult for you to accurately predict our likelihood of success and viability than it could be if we had a longer operating history.

In addition, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors and risks frequently experienced by clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies in rapidly evolving fields. We also may need to transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome such risks and difficulties, or to make such a transition. If we do not adequately address these risks and difficulties or successfully make such a transition, our business will suffer.

We have incurred significant net losses since our inception, and we expect to continue to incur significant net losses for the foreseeable future.

We have incurred significant net losses since our inception, have not generated any revenue from product sales to date and have financed our operations principally through private placements of our convertible preferred stock and the sale of our common stock in our initial public offering (IPO) in April 2020 and our public offering in November 2020. Our net loss was $78.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, and as of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $245.1 million. In the second quarter of 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) for ORIC-533. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we filed a Clinical Trial Application (CTA) in South Korea for ORIC-114, which was cleared in the first quarter of 2022. We also filed and cleared an IND with the FDA for ORIC-944 in the fourth quarter of 2021. Our other programs are in preclinical discovery and research stages. As a result, we expect that it will be several years, if ever, before we have a commercialized product and generate revenue from product sales. Even if we succeed in receiving marketing approval for and commercializing one or more of our product candidates, we expect that we will continue to incur substantial research and development and other expenses in order to discover, develop and market additional potential products.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenue. Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our working capital, our ability to fund the development of our product candidates and our ability to achieve and maintain profitability and the performance of our stock.

Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on our ability to achieve several objectives relating to the discovery, development and commercialization of our product candidates.

Our business depends entirely on the successful discovery, development and commercialization of product candidates. We have no products approved for commercial sale and do not anticipate generating any revenue from product sales for the next several

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years, if ever. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on our ability, or any current or future collaborator’s ability, to achieve several objectives, including:

successful and timely completion of preclinical and clinical development of ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and our other future product candidates;
establishing and maintaining relationships with contract research organizations (CROs) and clinical sites for the clinical development of ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and our other future product candidates;
timely receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities for any product candidates for which we successfully complete clinical development;
developing an efficient and scalable manufacturing process for our product candidates, including obtaining finished products that are appropriately packaged for sale;
establishing and maintaining commercially viable supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties that can provide adequate, in both amount and quality, products and services to support clinical development and meet the market demand for our product candidates, if approved;
successful commercial launch following any marketing approval, including the development of a commercial infrastructure, whether in-house or with one or more collaborators;
a continued acceptable safety profile following any marketing approval of our product candidates;
commercial acceptance of our product candidates by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
satisfying any required post-marketing approval commitments to applicable regulatory authorities;
identifying, assessing and developing new product candidates;
obtaining, maintaining and expanding patent protection, trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and internationally;
protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;
defending against third-party interference or infringement claims, if any;
entering into, on favorable terms, any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements that may be necessary or desirable to develop, manufacture or commercialize our product candidates;
obtaining coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors for our product candidates;
addressing any competing therapies and technological and market developments; and
attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.

We may never be successful in achieving our objectives and, even if we do, may never generate revenue that is significant or large enough to achieve profitability. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to maintain or further our research and development efforts, raise additional necessary capital, grow our business and continue our operations.

We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts.

Developing pharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is a very time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception, and we expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we conduct clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944 and advance our product candidate programs. Even if one or more of the product candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution activities. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or other regulatory agencies to perform clinical trials or preclinical studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Other unanticipated costs may also arise. Because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials are highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amount of resources and funding that will be necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of any product candidate we develop. We have not yet met with the FDA to discuss any of our product candidates or development programs, and we are not permitted to market or promote our product candidates before we receive marketing approval from the FDA. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in order to continue our operations.

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As of December 31, 2021, we had $280.4 million in cash, cash equivalents and available-for-sale investments. Based on our current operating plan, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and available-for-sale investments will be sufficient to fund our operations into the second half of 2024. Our estimate as to how long we expect our existing cash, cash equivalents, and available-for-sale investments, to be able to continue to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned.

We will be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources, which may dilute our stockholders or restrict our operating activities. We do not have any committed external source of funds. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a stockholder. Debt financing may result in imposition of debt covenants, increased fixed payment obligations or other restrictions that may affect our business. If we raise additional funds through upfront payments or milestone payments pursuant to strategic collaborations with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

Our failure to raise capital as and when needed or on acceptable terms would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy, and we may have to delay, reduce the scope of, suspend or eliminate one or more of our research-stage programs, clinical trials or future commercialization efforts.

Risks related to the discovery, development and commercialization of our product candidates

We were substantially dependent on the success of ORIC-101, for which we recently discontinued early stage clinical trials. We are substantially dependent on the success of our other product candidates, ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944. If we are unable to complete development of, obtain approval for and commercialize our product candidates for one or more indications in a timely manner, our business will be harmed.

Our future success was dependent on our ability to timely and successfully complete clinical trials for ORIC-101. However, we recently discontinued early stage clinical trials for ORIC-101. We will shift the majority of our efforts and financial resources to the research and development of ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944. Our future success is dependent on our ability to timely and successfully complete clinical trials, obtain marketing approval for and successfully commercialize ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944.

ORIC-533 is an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CD73 that has demonstrated more potent adenosine inhibition in vitro compared to an antibody-based approach and other small molecule CD73 inhibitors. In the second quarter of 2021, the FDA cleared the IND for ORIC-533, and we have initiated a Phase 1b trial as a single agent in multiple myeloma. ORIC-114 is a brain penetrant, orally bioavailable, irreversible inhibitor designed to selectively target EGFR and HER2 with high potency against exon 20 mutations. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we filed a CTA for ORIC-114 in South Korea, which was cleared in the first quarter of 2022. We are pursuing a Phase 1b single agent trial which will enroll patients with advanced solid tumors with EGFR or HER2 exon 20 alterations or HER2 amplifications and will allow patients with CNS metastases that are either treated or untreated but asymptomatic. ORIC-944 is a potent and selective allosteric inhibitor of PRC2 via the EED subunit and is efficacious in androgen-insensitive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer models in preclinical studies. We filed and cleared an IND with the FDA for ORIC-944 in the fourth quarter of 2021, and we are pursuing a single agent clinical development plan in prostate cancer. These product candidates will require additional clinical development, expansion of manufacturing capabilities, marketing approval from government regulators, substantial investment and significant marketing efforts before we can generate any revenues from product sales. We are not permitted to market or promote ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944, or any other product candidate, before we receive marketing approval from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such marketing approvals.

The success of our product candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:

the successful and timely completion of our ongoing clinical trials of our product candidates;
addressing any delays in our clinical trials and additional costs incurred as a result of the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, including those resulting from preclinical study delays and adjustment to our clinical trials;
the initiation and successful patient enrollment and completion of additional clinical trials of our product candidates on a timely basis;
maintaining and establishing relationships with CROs and clinical sites for the clinical development of our product candidates both in the United States and internationally;
the frequency and severity of adverse events in clinical trials;

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demonstrating efficacy, safety and tolerability profiles that are satisfactory to the FDA, EMA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority for marketing approval;
the timely receipt of marketing approvals for our product candidates from applicable regulatory authorities;
the timely identification, development and approval of companion diagnostic tests, if required;
the extent of any required post-marketing approval commitments to applicable regulatory authorities;
the maintenance of existing or the establishment of new supply arrangements with third-party drug product suppliers and manufacturers for clinical development and, if approved, commercialization of our product candidates;
obtaining and maintaining patent protection, trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and internationally;
the protection of our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;
the successful launch of commercial sales following any marketing approval;
a continued acceptable safety profile following any marketing approval;
commercial acceptance by patients, the medical community and third-party payors; and
our ability to compete with other therapies.

We do not have complete control over many of these factors, including certain aspects of clinical development and the regulatory submission process, potential threats to our intellectual property rights and the manufacturing, marketing, distribution and sales efforts of any future collaborator. If we are not successful with respect to one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our product candidates, which would materially harm our business. If we do not receive marketing approvals for our product candidates, we may not be able to continue our operations.

In addition to ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944, our prospects depend in part upon discovering, developing and commercializing additional product candidates, which may fail in development or suffer delays that adversely affect their commercial viability.

Our future operating results are dependent on our ability to successfully discover, develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize product candidates. All of our current programs other than ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944, are in research or preclinical development. A product candidate can unexpectedly fail at any stage of preclinical and/or clinical development. The historical failure rate for product candidates is high due to risks relating to safety, efficacy, clinical execution, changing standards of medical care and other unpredictable variables. The results from preclinical testing or early clinical trials of a product candidate may not be predictive of the results that will be obtained in later stage clinical trials of the product candidate.

The success of other product candidates we may develop will depend on many factors, including the following:

generating sufficient data to support the initiation or continuation of clinical trials;
addressing any delays in our research programs resulting from factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic;
obtaining regulatory permission to initiate clinical trials;
contracting with the necessary parties to conduct clinical trials;
successful enrollment of patients in, and the completion of, clinical trials on a timely basis;
the timely manufacture of sufficient quantities of a product candidate for use in clinical trials; and
adverse events in clinical trials.

Even if we successfully advance product candidates into clinical development, their success will be subject to all of the clinical, regulatory and commercial risks described elsewhere in this “Risk factors” section. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will ever be able to discover, develop, obtain regulatory approval of, commercialize or generate significant revenue from any product candidates.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.

Obtaining approval by the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable, typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the type, complexity and

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novelty of the product candidates involved. In addition, approval policies, regulations or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions, which may cause delays in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other data. Even if we eventually complete clinical testing and receive approval for our product candidates, the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may approve our product candidates for a more limited indication or a narrower patient population than we originally requested or may impose other prescribing limitations or warnings that limit the product’s commercial potential. We have not submitted for, or obtained, regulatory approval for any product candidate, and it is possible that none of our product candidates will ever obtain regulatory approval. Further, development of our product candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for reasons beyond our control.

Applications for our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation or results of our clinical trials;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may determine that our product candidates are not safe and effective, are only moderately effective or have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use;
the population studied in the clinical trial may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure efficacy and safety in the full population for which we seek approval;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities that our product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio for its proposed indication is acceptable;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes, test procedures and specifications or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities may fail to approve companion diagnostic tests that are required for our product candidates; and
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of the results of clinical trials, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

The clinical trials of our product candidates may not demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities or otherwise produce positive results.

Before obtaining marketing approval from the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidates, we must complete preclinical development and extensive clinical trials to demonstrate with substantial evidence the safety and efficacy of such product candidates. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and its ultimate outcome is uncertain. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of the process. The outcome of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their drugs.

We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent receipt of marketing approval or our ability to commercialize our product candidates, including:

receipt of feedback from regulatory authorities that requires us to modify the design of our clinical trials;
negative or inconclusive clinical trial results that may require us to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon certain drug development programs;
the number of patients required for clinical trials being larger than anticipated, enrollment in these clinical trials being slower than anticipated or participants dropping out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than anticipated;

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third-party contractors failing to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
the suspension or termination of our clinical trials for various reasons, including non-compliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that our product candidates have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics or risks;
the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates being greater than anticipated;
the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates being insufficient or inadequate; and
regulators revising the requirements for approving our product candidates.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our product candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our product candidates or other testing in a timely manner, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may incur unplanned costs, be delayed in seeking and obtaining marketing approval, if we receive such approval at all, receive more limited or restrictive marketing approval, be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements or have the drug removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

Our product candidates may cause significant adverse events, toxicities or other undesirable side effects when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs that may result in a safety profile that could prevent regulatory approval, prevent market acceptance, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

If our product candidates are associated with undesirable side effects or have unexpected characteristics in preclinical studies or clinical trials when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs we may need to interrupt, delay or abandon their development or limit development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product candidate and may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

For example, in studies of ORIC-101, patients experienced mild adverse events like fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances, all of which were resolved without treatment. In clinical trials of ORIC-101, treatment-related adverse events were primarily Grade 1 or 2, which all resolved with dose interruption.

Patients in our ongoing and planned clinical trials may in the future suffer other significant adverse events or other side effects not observed in our preclinical studies or previous clinical trials. Our product candidates may be used in populations for which safety concerns may be particularly scrutinized by regulatory agencies. Patients treated with our product candidates may also be undergoing surgical, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, which can cause side effects or adverse events that are unrelated to our product candidate but may still impact the success of our clinical trials. The inclusion of critically ill patients in our clinical trials may result in deaths or other adverse medical events due to other therapies or medications that such patients may be using or due to the gravity of such patients’ illnesses. For example, it is expected that some of the patients enrolled in our clinical trials will die or experience major clinical events either during the course of our clinical trials or after participating in such trials, which has occurred in the past.

If further significant adverse events or other side effects are observed in any of our current or future clinical trials, we may have difficulty recruiting patients to the clinical trials, patients may drop out of our trials, or we may be required to abandon the trials or our development efforts of that product candidate altogether. We, the FDA, EMA, other comparable regulatory authorities or an IRB may suspend clinical trials of a product candidate at any time for various reasons, including a belief that subjects in such trials are being exposed to unacceptable health risks or adverse side effects. Some potential therapeutics developed in the biotechnology industry that initially showed therapeutic promise in early-stage trials have later been found to cause side effects that prevented their further development. Even if the side effects do not preclude the product candidate from obtaining or maintaining marketing approval, undesirable side effects may inhibit market acceptance due to its tolerability versus other therapies. Any of these developments could materially harm our business, financial condition and prospects. Further, if any of our product candidates obtains marketing approval, toxicities associated with such product candidates previously not seen during clinical testing may also develop after such approval and lead to a requirement to conduct additional clinical safety trials, additional contraindications, warnings and precautions being added to the drug label, significant restrictions on the use of the product or the withdrawal of the product from the market. We cannot predict whether our product candidates will cause toxicities in humans that would preclude or lead to the revocation of regulatory approval based on preclinical studies or early stage clinical trials.

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The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

We will be required to demonstrate with substantial evidence through well-controlled clinical trials that our product candidates are safe and effective for use in a diverse population before we can seek marketing approvals for their commercial sale. Success in preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials does not mean that future clinical trials will be successful. For instance, we recently discontinued our ORIC-101 clinical trials, nor do we know whether ORIC-533, ORIC-114 or ORIC-944 will perform in current or future preclinical studies or future clinical trials as they have in prior preclinical studies. Product candidates in later-stage clinical trials may fail to demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities despite having progressed through preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials. Regulatory authorities may also limit the scope of later-stage trials until we have demonstrated satisfactory safety, which could delay regulatory approval, limit the size of the patient population to which we may market our product candidates, or prevent regulatory approval.

In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety and efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial protocols, differences in size and type of the patient populations, differences in and adherence to the dose and dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Patients treated with our product candidates may also be undergoing surgical, radiation and chemotherapy treatments and may be using other approved products or investigational new drugs, which can cause side effects or adverse events that are unrelated to our product candidates. As a result, assessments of efficacy can vary widely for a particular patient, and from patient to patient and site to site within a clinical trial. This subjectivity can increase the uncertainty of, and adversely impact, our clinical trial outcomes.

We do not know whether any clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate efficacy and safety sufficient to obtain approval to market any of our product candidates.

Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available, and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary, interim or topline data from our clinical trials. These interim updates are based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. For example, we may report tumor responses in certain patients that are unconfirmed at the time and which do not ultimately result in confirmed responses to treatment after follow-up evaluations. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the topline results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. In addition, we may report interim analyses of only certain endpoints rather than all endpoints. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Adverse changes between interim data and final data could significantly harm our business and prospects. Further, additional disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors in the future could result in volatility in the price of our common stock.

In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is typically selected from a more extensive amount of available information. You or others may not agree with what we determine is the material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure, and any information we determine not to disclose may ultimately be deemed significant with respect to future decisions, conclusions, views, activities or otherwise regarding a particular product candidate or our business. If the preliminary or topline data that we report differ from late, final or actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, any product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Adverse results of clinical trials conducted by third parties investigating the same product candidates as us in different territories could adversely affect our development of such product candidate.

Lack of efficacy, adverse events, undesirable side effects or other adverse results may emerge in clinical trials conducted by third parties investigating the same product candidates as us in different territories. For example, pursuant to the Voronoi License Agreement, Voronoi retains the right to develop and commercialize the same compounds licensed to us, after a certain period, as specified in the Voronoi License Agreement, including the compound we refer to as ORIC-114, in the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan and, subject to certain restrictions, to collaborate with others for such development and commercialization. We do not have control over Voronoi’s clinical trials or development program, and adverse findings from or Voronoi’s conduct of clinical trials could adversely affect our development of ORIC-114 or even the viability of ORIC-114 as a

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product candidate. We may be required to report Voronoi’s adverse events or unexpected side effects to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, which could, among other things, order us to cease further development of ORIC-114.

If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment and/or maintenance of patients in clinical trials, our regulatory submissions or receipt of necessary marketing approvals could be delayed or prevented.

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials to such trial’s conclusion as required by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Often done through biomarker testing, patient identification and enrollment are significant factors in the timing of clinical trials. Our ability to identify and enroll eligible patients may be limited or may result in slower enrollment than we anticipate. If patient identification proves unsuccessful, we may have difficulty enrolling or maintaining patients appropriate for our product candidates. Similarly, enrollment in trials for our product candidates may be limited or slower than we anticipated if any required laboratory biomarker tests are not available due to pandemic shortages of staff or reagents.

Enrollment of patients in our clinical trials and maintaining patients in our ongoing clinical trials may be delayed or limited as our clinical trial sites limit their onsite staff or temporarily close as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. For instance, we were aware of certain ORIC-101 clinical trial sites that had temporarily stopped or delayed enrolling new patients in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, patients may not be able to visit clinical trial sites for dosing or data collection purposes due to limitations on travel and physical distancing imposed or recommended by federal or state governments or patients’ reluctance to visit the clinical trial sites during the pandemic. These factors resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic could delay the anticipated readouts from our clinical trials and our regulatory submissions.

Patient enrollment may be affected if our competitors have ongoing clinical trials for programs that are under development for the same indications as our product candidates, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ programs. Patient enrollment for our current or any future clinical trials may be affected by other factors, including:

size and nature of the patient population;
severity of the disease under investigation;
availability and efficacy of approved drugs for the disease under investigation;
patient eligibility criteria for the trial in question as defined in the protocol;
perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new products that may be approved or other product candidates being investigated for the indications we are investigating;
clinicians’ willingness to screen their patients for biomarkers to indicate which patients may be eligible for enrollment in our clinical trials;
patient referral practices of physicians;
the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment;
proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients; and
the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion or, because they may be late-stage cancer patients, will not survive the full terms of the clinical trials.

Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our product candidates and jeopardize our ability to obtain marketing approval for the sale of our product candidates. Furthermore, even if we are able to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials, we may have difficulty maintaining participation in our clinical trials through the treatment and any follow-up periods.

Our operations and financial results could be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and the rest of the world.

In December 2019, COVID-19 was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China, resulting in significant disruptions to Chinese manufacturing and travel. COVID-19 has now spread to numerous other countries, including extensively within the United States, resulting in the World Health Organization characterizing COVID-19 as a pandemic. As a result of measures imposed by the governments in affected regions, many commercial activities, businesses and schools were suspended as part of quarantines and other

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measures intended to contain this pandemic. Due to the continued COVID-19 pandemic, including the spread of variants, we may experience disruptions that could severely impact our business and clinical trials, including:

interruption of key research and discovery or other activities related to any impact of COVID-19 contraction by or transmission among our employees, including those that are essential workers and work within our laboratory;
delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials, or those conducted by third parties, and further incurrence of additional costs as a result of preclinical study and clinical trial delays and adjustments;
challenges related to ongoing and increased operational expenses related to the COVID-19 pandemic;
delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;
diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of clinical trials;
interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others;
limitations in resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our business or our clinical trials, including because of sickness or the desire to avoid contact with large groups of people or as a result of government-imposed “shelter in place” or similar working restrictions;
delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities to initiate our planned clinical trials;
delays in clinical sites receiving the supplies and materials needed to conduct our clinical trials;
interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials, such as investigational drug product used in our clinical trials;
changes in regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 pandemic which may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, or to discontinue the clinical trials altogether, or which may result in unexpected costs;
delays in necessary interactions with regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government or contractor personnel; and
refusal of the FDA to accept data from clinical trials in affected geographies outside the United States.

We will continue to assess the impact that COVID-19 may have on our ability to effectively conduct our business operations as planned and there can be no assurance that we will be able to avoid a material impact on our business from the spread of COVID-19 or its consequences, including disruption to our business and downturns in business sentiment generally or in our industry.

Our primary operations are located in South San Francisco and San Diego. As a result of county and California stay-at-home orders being lifted, the portion of our employees that were telecommuting are in the process of returning to our physical locations at both sites. As our employees begin to return to work in our physical locations, our employees may be exposed to COVID-19 (including variants), and we may face claims by such employees or regulatory authorities that we have not provided adequate protection to our employees with respect to the spread of COVID-19 at our physical locations, which may affect our business, results of operations and reputation.

Additionally, certain third parties with whom we engage, including our collaborators, contract organizations, third party manufacturers, suppliers, clinical trial sites, regulators and other third parties with whom we conduct business are similarly adjusting their operations and assessing their capacity in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. If these third parties experience slowdowns, shutdowns or other business disruptions, our ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively impacted. For example, as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there could be delays in the manufacturing supply chain, which could delay or otherwise impact procurement of materials for certain of our ongoing or planned studies of ORIC-533, ORIC-114 or ORIC-944. Additionally, certain preclinical studies for our discovery research programs are conducted by CROs or academic institutions, some of which temporarily stopped or delayed operations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disruptions of this nature could negatively impact the timelines of our preclinical programs. In the event of a resurgence of COVID-19 infections, it is likely that the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on hospitals and clinical sites will have an impact on recruitment and retention for our clinical trials. For instance, we are aware of certain clinical trial sites that have temporarily stopped or delayed enrolling new patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, certain of our clinical trial sites have experienced, and others may experience in the future, delays in collecting, receiving and analyzing data from patients enrolled in our clinical trials due to limited staff at such sites, limitation or suspension of on-site visits by patients, or patients’ reluctance to visit the clinical trial sites during the pandemic. We and our CROs have also made certain adjustments to the operation of such trials in an effort to ensure the

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monitoring and safety of patients and minimize risks to trial integrity during the pandemic in accordance with the guidance issued by the FDA on March 18, 2020 and generally, and may need to make further adjustments in the future, including adjustments based on recently issued FDA guidance on manufacturing, supply chain, and pharmaceutical product inspections; resuming normal pharmaceutical manufacturing operations; and updates on conducting clinical trials during the COVID-19 public health emergency. Many of these adjustments are new and untested, may not be effective, and may have unforeseen effects on the enrollment, progress and completion of these trials and the findings from these trials. While we are currently continuing our clinical trials and seeking to add new clinical trial sites, we may not be successful in adding trial sites, may experience delays in patient enrollment or in the progression of our clinical trials, may need to suspend our clinical trials, and may encounter other negative impacts to our trials, due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to evolve. While the extent of the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on our business and financial results is uncertain, a continued and prolonged public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic could have a material negative impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial condition and operating results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the risks described in this “Risk factors” section.

If we are unable to successfully develop any required companion diagnostic tests for our product candidates, experience significant delays in doing so, or rely on third parties in the development of such companion diagnostic tests, we may not realize the full commercial potential of our product candidates.

We are exploring predictive biomarkers to determine patient selection for our clinical trials and to evaluate whether a companion diagnostic test will be required for any of our product candidates. In general, the FDA expects to review and approve simultaneously NDA and pre-market approval (PMA) submissions for a therapeutic and its companion diagnostic, respectively, so any delay in diagnostic approval could delay drug approval. On April 13, 2020, the FDA issued new guidance on developing and labeling companion diagnostics for a specific group of oncology therapeutic products, including recommendations to support a broader labeling claim rather than individual therapeutic products. We will continue to evaluate the impact of this guidance on our companion diagnostic development and strategy. This guidance and future issuances from the FDA and other regulatory authorities may impact our development of a companion diagnostic for our product candidates and result in delays in regulatory approval. We may be required to conduct additional studies to support a broader claim. Also, to the extent other approved diagnostics are able to broaden their labeling claims to include our approved drug products, we may be forced to abandon any of our companion diagnostic development plans or we may not be able to compete effectively upon approval, which could adversely impact our ability to generate revenue from the sale of our approved products and our business operations.

We may rely on third parties for the design, development and manufacture of companion diagnostic tests for our product candidates that require such tests. To be successful, we or our collaborators will need to address a number of scientific, technical, regulatory and logistical challenges. If we or such third parties are unable to successfully develop companion diagnostics, or experience delays in doing so, we may be unable to enroll enough patients for our current and planned clinical trials, the development of our product candidates may be adversely affected or we may not obtain marketing approval, and we may not realize the full commercial potential of our product candidates.

We may develop our programs in combination with other therapies, which exposes us to additional risks.

We may develop our programs, in combination with one or more currently approved cancer therapies or therapies in development. Patients may not be able to tolerate our product candidates in combination with other therapies or dosing of our product candidates in combination with other therapies may have unexpected consequences. Even if any of our product candidates were to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with any of our product candidates, or safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with these existing therapies. In addition, it is possible that existing therapies with which our product candidates are approved for use could themselves fall out of favor or be relegated to later lines of treatment. This could result in the need to identify other combination therapies for our product candidates or our own products being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.

We may also evaluate our product candidates in combination with one or more other cancer therapies that have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. We will not be able to market and sell any product candidate in combination with any such unapproved cancer therapies that do not ultimately obtain marketing approval.

If the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities do not approve or revoke their approval of these other therapies, or if safety, efficacy, commercial adoption, manufacturing or supply issues arise with the therapies we choose to evaluate in combination with our product candidates, we may be unable to obtain approval of or successfully market any one or all of the product candidates we develop.

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Additionally, if the third-party providers of therapies or therapies in development used in combination with our product candidates are unable to produce sufficient quantities for clinical trials or for commercialization of our product candidates, or if the cost of combination therapies are prohibitive, our development and commercialization efforts would be impaired, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

We have limited resources and are focusing our efforts on developing ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944, and advancing our preclinical programs. As a result, we may fail to capitalize on other indications or product candidates that may ultimately have proven to be more profitable.

We are currently shifting our resources and efforts from developing ORIC-101 to developing ORIC-533, ORIC-114 and ORIC-944, and advancing our preclinical programs. As a result, because we have limited resources, we may forgo or delay pursuit of opportunities for other indications or with other product candidates that may have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial drugs or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development activities for ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 and other preclinical programs, may not yield any commercially viable drugs. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target markets for ORIC-533, ORIC-114, ORIC-944 or any of our other programs, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate or program through collaboration, licensing or other strategic arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate or program.

We face significant competition, and if our competitors develop and market technologies or products more rapidly than we do or that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the products we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary and novel products and product candidates.

Our competitors have developed, are developing or may develop products, product candidates and processes competitive with our product candidates. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future. We believe that a significant number of products are currently under development, and may become commercially available in the future, for the treatment of conditions for which we may attempt to develop product candidates. In addition, our products may need to compete with drugs physicians use off-label to treat the indications for which we seek approval. This may make it difficult for us to replace existing therapies with our products.

In particular, there is intense competition in the field of oncology. We have competitors both in the United States and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, established biotechnology companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, emerging and start-up companies, universities and other research institutions. We also compete with these organizations to recruit management, scientists and clinical development personnel, which could negatively affect our level of expertise and our ability to execute our business plan. We will also face competition in establishing clinical trial sites, enrolling subjects for clinical trials and in identifying and in-licensing new product candidates. We expect to face competition from existing products and products in development for each of our programs. For ORIC-533, we are aware of several companies developing antibodies against this target, including AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Novartis in collaboration with Surface Oncology, Incyte Corporation, Corvus Pharmaceuticals, Innate Pharma, Tracon Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with I-Mab Biopharma, Akeso, Symphogen, Innovent, Henlius Biotech and Jacobio Pharmaceuticals. Other companies, such as Arcus Biosciences, Antengene and Merck through its acquisition of Peloton Therapeutics, have small-molecule programs against this target. To our knowledge, only Antengene has an orally available, small molecule CD73 inhibitor in an active clinical trial for patients with cancer. For ORIC-944, we are aware of several companies developing inhibitors against PRC2 via EZH2 inhibition that are currently in clinical trials, including Epizyme, Constellation Pharmaceuticals (now Morphosys), Daiichi Sankyo, Pfizer, Shanghai HaiHe Pharmaceutical and Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. To our knowledge, only Novartis has an allosteric PRC2 inhibitor in a clinical trial for patients with cancer. For ORIC-114, we are aware of two companies with an FDA approved product for patients with EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations, including Takeda and The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. We are also aware of several companies developing inhibitors against EGFR or HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations that are currently in clinical trials, including Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Daiichi Sankyo, Dizal Pharmaceuticals, Cullinan Oncology, Black Diamond Therapeutics, Bayer, Allist Pharmaceuticals and Blueprint Medicines. Additionally, Seattle Genetics has an FDA approved product for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, including patients with brain metastases. We are also aware that Dizal Pharmaceuticals is developing a brain penetrant inhibitor currently in a clinical trial for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Many of these current and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, manufacturing, marketing, drug development, technical and human resources, and commercial expertise than we do. Large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, in particular, have extensive experience in clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals, recruiting patients and manufacturing biotechnology products. These companies also have significantly greater research and marketing capabilities than we do and may also have products that have been approved or are in late stages of development, and collaborative arrangements in our target markets with leading companies and research institutions. Established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies may also invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license novel compounds that could make the

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product candidates that we develop obsolete. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. As a result of all of these factors, our competitors may succeed in obtaining approval from the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities or in discovering, developing and commercializing products in our field before we do.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer side effects, are more convenient, have a broader label, are marketed more effectively, are more widely reimbursed or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain marketing approval from the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Even if the product candidates we develop achieve marketing approval, they may be priced at a significant premium over competitive products if any have been approved by then, resulting in reduced competitiveness. Technological advances or products developed by our competitors may render our technologies or product candidates obsolete, less competitive or not economical. If we are unable to compete effectively, our opportunity to generate revenue from the sale of our products we may develop, if approved, could be adversely affected.

The manufacture of drugs is complex, and our third-party manufacturers may encounter difficulties in production or supply chain. If any of our third-party manufacturers encounter such difficulties, our ability to provide adequate supply of our product candidates for clinical trials or our products for patients, if approved, could be delayed or prevented.

Manufacturing drugs, especially in large quantities, is complex and may require the use of innovative technologies. Each lot of an approved drug product must undergo thorough testing for identity, strength, quality, purity and potency. Manufacturing drugs requires facilities specifically designed for and validated for this purpose, as well as sophisticated quality assurance and quality control procedures. Slight deviations anywhere in the manufacturing process, including filling, labeling, packaging, storage and shipping and quality control and testing, may result in lot failures, product recalls or spoilage. When changes are made to the manufacturing process, we may be required to provide preclinical and clinical data showing the comparable identity, strength, quality, purity or potency of the products before and after such changes. If microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered at the facilities of our manufacturer, such facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination, which could delay clinical trials and adversely harm our business. The use of biologically derived ingredients can also lead to allegations of harm, including infections or allergic reactions, or closure of product facilities due to possible contamination. Additionally, we may experience supply chain disruptions or slowdowns, including related manufacturing, logistics, labor supply or other factors related to the supply chains of products and materials that we use. If our third-party manufacturers are unable to produce sufficient quantities for clinical trials or for commercialization as a result of these challenges, or otherwise, our development and commercialization efforts would be impaired, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

Changes in methods of product candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delay.

As product candidates progress through preclinical and clinical trials to marketing approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods and formulation, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize yield and manufacturing batch size, minimize costs and achieve consistent quality and results. Such changes carry the risk that they will not achieve these intended objectives. Any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or other future clinical trials conducted with the altered materials. This could delay completion of clinical trials, require the conduct of bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidates and jeopardize our ability to commercialize our product candidates, if approved, and generate revenue.

Our product candidates may not achieve adequate market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they may not gain adequate market acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. The degree of market acceptance of any of our approved product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including:

the efficacy and safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials compared to alternative treatments;
the timing of market introduction of the product candidate as well as competitive products;
the clinical indications for which a product candidate is approved;
restrictions on the use of product candidates in the labeling approved by regulatory authorities, such as boxed warnings or contraindications in labeling, or a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, if any, which may not be required of alternative treatments and competitor products;

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the potential and perceived advantages of our product candidates over alternative treatments;
the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments;
the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government authorities;
the availability of an approved product candidate for use as a combination therapy;
relative convenience and ease of administration;
the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and undergo required diagnostic screening to determine treatment eligibility and of physicians to prescribe these therapies and diagnostic tests;
the effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts;
unfavorable publicity relating to our product candidates; and
the approval of other new therapies for the same indications.

If any of our product candidates are approved but do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, hospitals, healthcare payors and patients, we may not generate or derive sufficient revenue from that product candidate and our financial results could be negatively impacted.

The market opportunities for our product candidates we develop, if approved, may be limited to certain smaller patient subsets.

Cancer therapies are sometimes characterized as first-line, second-line or third-line, and the FDA often approves new therapies initially only for a particular line of use. When cancer is detected early enough, first-line therapy, such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of these, is sometimes adequate to cure the cancer or prolong life without a cure. Second- and third-line therapies are administered to patients when prior therapy is not effective. Our clinical trials for ORIC-101 were with patients who had received one or more prior treatments. There is no guarantee that product candidates we develop, even if approved, would be approved for first-line therapy, and, prior to any such approvals, we may have to conduct additional clinical trials that may be costly, time-consuming and subject to risk.

The number of patients who have the cancers we are targeting may turn out to be lower than expected. Additionally, the potentially addressable patient population for the product candidates we develop may be limited or may not be amenable to treatment with our product candidates. Regulatory approval may limit the market of a product candidate to target patient populations when biomarker-driven identification and/or highly specific criteria related to the stage of disease progression are utilized.

Even if we obtain significant market share for any approved product, if the potential target populations are small, we may never achieve profitability without obtaining marketing approval for additional indications.

We may not be successful in augmenting our product pipeline through acquisitions and in-licenses.

We believe that accessing external innovation and expertise is important to our success; and while we plan to leverage our leadership team’s prior business development experience as we evaluate potential in-licensing and acquisition opportunities to further expand our portfolio, we may not be able to identify suitable licensing or acquisition opportunities, and even if we do, we may not be able to successfully secure such licensing and acquisition opportunities. The licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and several more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment, or at all. If we are unable to successfully license or acquire additional product candidates to expand our portfolio, our pipeline, competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be materially harmed.

Any product candidates we develop may become subject to unfavorable third-party coverage and reimbursement practices, as well as pricing regulations.

The availability and extent of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, private health coverage insurers, managed care organizations and other third-party payors is essential for most patients to be able to afford expensive treatments. Sales of any of our product candidates that receive marketing approval will depend substantially, both in the United States and internationally, on the extent to which the costs of such product candidates will be covered and reimbursed by third-party payors. If reimbursement is not available, or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our product candidates. Even if coverage is provided, the approved reimbursement amount may not be high enough to allow us to establish or maintain pricing sufficient to realize an adequate return on our investment. Coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. If

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coverage and reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, for example, principal decisions about reimbursement for new products are typically made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). CMS decides whether and to what extent a new product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private third-party payors often follow CMS’s decisions regarding coverage and reimbursement to a substantial degree. However, one third-party payor’s determination to provide coverage for a product candidate does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product candidate. As a result, the coverage determination process is often time-consuming and costly. This process will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each third-party payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.

Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Further, such payors are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost effectiveness of medical product candidates. There may be especially significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific product candidates on an approved list, known as a formulary, which might not include all FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. We may need to conduct expensive pharmaco-economic studies to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost effectiveness of our products. Nonetheless, our product candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost effective. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be.

In addition, companion diagnostic tests require coverage and reimbursement separate and apart from the coverage and reimbursement for their companion pharmaceutical or biological products. Similar challenges to obtaining coverage and reimbursement, applicable to pharmaceutical or biological products, will apply to companion diagnostics. Additionally, if any companion diagnostic provider is unable to obtain reimbursement or is inadequately reimbursed, that may limit the availability of such companion diagnostic, which would negatively impact prescriptions for our product candidates, if approved.

Outside the United States, the commercialization of therapeutics is generally subject to extensive governmental price controls and other market regulations, and we believe the increasing emphasis on cost containment initiatives in Europe, Canada and other countries has and will continue to put pressure on the pricing and usage of therapeutics such as our product candidates. In many countries, particularly the countries of the European Union, medical product prices are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after a product receives marketing approval. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies. In general, product prices under such systems are substantially lower than in the United States. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for products but monitor and control company profits. Additional foreign price controls or other changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we are able to charge for our product candidates. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for our products may be reduced compared with the United States and may be insufficient to generate commercially reasonable revenue and profits.

If we are unable to establish or sustain coverage and adequate reimbursement for any product candidates from third-party payors, the adoption of those products and sales revenue will be adversely affected, which, in turn, could adversely affect the ability to market or sell those product candidates, if approved. Coverage policies and third-party payor reimbursement rates may change at any time. Even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained for one or more products for which we receive regulatory approval, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

Our business entails a significant risk of product liability and if we are unable to obtain sufficient insurance coverage such inability could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Our business exposes us to significant product liability risks inherent in the development, testing, manufacturing and marketing of therapeutic treatments. Product liability claims could delay or prevent completion of our development programs. If we succeed in marketing products, such claims could result in an FDA, EMA or other regulatory authority investigation of the safety and effectiveness of our products, our manufacturing processes and facilities or our marketing programs. FDA, EMA or other regulatory authority investigations could potentially lead to a recall of our products or more serious enforcement action, limitations on the approved indications for which they may be used or suspension or withdrawal of approvals. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may also result in decreased demand for our products, injury to our reputation, costs to defend the related litigation, a diversion of management’s time and our resources and substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients. We currently have product liability insurance that we believe is appropriate for our stage of development and may need to obtain higher levels prior to marketing any of our product candidates, if approved. Any insurance we have or may obtain may not provide sufficient coverage against potential liabilities. Furthermore, clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As

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a result, we may be unable to obtain sufficient insurance at a reasonable cost to protect us against losses caused by product liability claims that could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Risks related to regulatory approval and other legal compliance matters

We may be unable to obtain U.S. or foreign regulatory approval and, as a result, may be unable to commercialize our product candidates.

Our product candidates are and will continue to be subject to extensive governmental regulations relating to, among other things, research, testing, development, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, approval, recordkeeping, reporting, labeling, storage, packaging, advertising and promotion, pricing, marketing and distribution of drugs. Rigorous preclinical testing and clinical trials and an extensive regulatory approval process must be successfully completed in the United States and in many foreign jurisdictions before a new drug can be approved for marketing. Satisfaction of these and other regulatory requirements is costly, time consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays. We cannot provide any assurance that any product candidate we may develop will progress through required clinical testing and obtain the regulatory approvals necessary for us to begin selling them.

We have not conducted, managed or completed large-scale or pivotal clinical trials nor managed the regulatory approval process with the FDA or any other regulatory authority. The time required to obtain approvals from the FDA and other regulatory authorities is unpredictable and requires successful completion of extensive clinical trials which typically takes many years, depending upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidate. The standards that the FDA and its foreign counterparts use when evaluating clinical trial data can, and often does, change during drug development, which makes it difficult to predict with any certainty how they will be applied. We may also encounter unexpected delays or increased costs due to new government regulations, including future legislation or administrative action, or changes in FDA policy during the period of drug development, clinical trials and FDA regulatory review.

Any delay or failure in seeking or obtaining required approvals would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue from any particular product candidates we are developing and for which we are seeking approval. Furthermore, any regulatory approval to market a drug may be subject to significant limitations on the approved uses or indications for which we may market, promote and advertise the drug or the labeling or other restrictions. In addition, the FDA has the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) plan as part of approving an NDA, or after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the distribution or use of an approved drug. These requirements or restrictions might include limiting prescribing to certain physicians or medical centers that have undergone specialized training, limiting treatment to patients who meet certain safe-use criteria and requiring treated patients to enroll in a registry. These limitations and restrictions may significantly limit the size of the market for the drug and affect reimbursement by third-party payors.

We are also subject to numerous foreign regulatory requirements governing, among other things, the conduct of clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing authorization, pricing and third-party reimbursement. The foreign regulatory approval process varies among countries, and generally includes all of the risks associated with FDA approval described above as well as risks attributable to the satisfaction of local regulations in foreign jurisdictions. Moreover, the time required to obtain approval may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval.

The FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from trials conducted in locations outside of their jurisdiction.

We have conducted and still conduct clinical trials in the United States. We may choose to conduct additional clinical trials internationally, including a Phase 1b trial for ORIC-114 in South Korea and Australia. The acceptance of study data by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authority from clinical trials conducted outside of their respective jurisdictions may be subject to certain conditions. In cases where data from United States clinical trials are intended to serve as the basis for marketing approval in the foreign countries outside the United States, the standards for clinical trials and approval may be different. There can be no assurance that any United States or foreign regulatory authority would accept data from trials conducted outside of its applicable jurisdiction. If the FDA, EMA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority does not accept such data, it would result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay aspects of our business plan, and which may result in our product candidates not receiving approval or clearance for commercialization in the applicable jurisdiction.

Brexit and uncertainty in the regulatory framework as well as future legislation in the UK, European Union, and other jurisdictions can lead to disruption in the execution of international multi-center clinical trials, the monitoring of adverse events through pharmacovigilance programs, the evaluation of the benefit-risk profiles of new medicinal products, and determination of marketing authorization across different jurisdictions. Uncertainty in the regulatory framework could also result in disruption to the supply and distribution as well as the import/export both of active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished product. Such a disruption could create supply difficulties for ongoing clinical trials. The cumulative effects of the disruption to the regulatory framework, uncertainty in future regulation, and changes to existing regulations may increase our development lead time to marketing authorization and commercialization of products in the European Union and/or the United Kingdom and increase our costs. We cannot predict the impact of such changes and future regulation on our business or the results of our operations.

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Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in other jurisdictions.

Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain regulatory approval in any other jurisdiction. For example, even if the FDA or EMA grants marketing approval of a product candidate, comparable regulatory authorities in foreign jurisdictions must also approve the manufacturing, marketing and promotion and reimbursement of the product candidate in those countries. However, a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one jurisdiction may have a negative effect on the regulatory approval process in others. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from those in the United States, including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials as clinical trials conducted in one jurisdiction may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. In many jurisdictions outside the United States, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that jurisdiction. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for our products is also subject to approval.

Obtaining foreign regulatory approvals and establishing and maintaining compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. If we or any future collaborator fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets or fail to receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our potential product candidates will be harmed.

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they will be subject to significant post-marketing regulatory requirements and oversight.

Any regulatory approvals that we may receive for our product candidates will require the submission of reports to regulatory authorities and on-going surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate, may contain significant limitations related to use restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications, and may include burdensome post-approval study or risk management requirements and regulatory inspection. For example, the FDA may require a REMS in order to approve our product candidates, which could entail requirements for a medication guide, physician training and communication plans or additional elements to ensure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. In addition, if the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities approve our product candidates, the manufacturing processes, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion, import, export and recordkeeping for our product candidates will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as on-going compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) and good clinical practices (GCPs) for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic, unannounced inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP regulations and standards. If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facilities where the product is manufactured, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing. In addition, failure to comply with FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory requirements may subject our company to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:

delays in or the rejection of product approvals;
restrictions on our ability to conduct clinical trials, including full or partial clinical holds on ongoing or planned trials;
restrictions on the products, manufacturers or manufacturing process;
warning or untitled letters;
civil and criminal penalties;
injunctions;
suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;
product seizures, detentions or import bans;
voluntary or mandatory product recalls and publicity requirements;
total or partial suspension of production; and
imposition of restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements.

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Moreover, the FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about drug products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties.

The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize our product candidates, if approved, and generate revenue.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses.

If any of our product candidates are approved and we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses of those products, we may become subject to significant liability. The FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that may be made about prescription products, such as our product candidates, if approved. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. For example, if we receive marketing approval for ORIC-533 as a treatment for multiple myeloma, physicians may nevertheless use our product for their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability. The U.S. federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion of off-label use and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed. If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of our product candidates, if approved, we could become subject to significant liability, which would materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

If we are required by the FDA to obtain approval of a companion diagnostic test in connection with approval of any of our product candidates or a group of therapeutic products, and we do not obtain or we face delays in obtaining FDA approval of a diagnostic test, we will not be able to commercialize the product candidate and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

In connection with the development of our potential product candidates, we may develop or work with collaborators to develop or obtain access to companion diagnostic tests to identify patient subsets within a disease category who may derive selective and meaningful benefit from our programs. Such companion diagnostics would be used during our clinical trials as well as in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates. To be successful in developing and commercializing product candidates in combination with these companion diagnostics, we or our collaborators will need to address a number of scientific, technical, regulatory and logistical challenges. According to FDA guidance, if the FDA determines that a companion diagnostic device is essential to the safe and effective use of a novel therapeutic product or indication, the FDA generally will not approve the therapeutic product or new therapeutic product indication if the companion diagnostic is not also approved or cleared at the same time the product candidate is approved. To date, the FDA has required marketing approval of all companion diagnostic tests for cancer therapies. Various foreign regulatory authorities also regulate in vitro companion diagnostics as medical devices and, under those regulatory frameworks, will likely require the conduct of clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of our current diagnostics and any future diagnostics we may develop, which we expect will require separate regulatory clearance or approval prior to commercialization.

The approval of a companion diagnostic as part of the therapeutic product’s labeling limits the use of the therapeutic product to only those patients who express certain biomarkers or the specific genetic alteration that the companion diagnostic was developed to detect. If the FDA, EMA or a comparable regulatory authority requires approval of a companion diagnostic for any of our product candidates, whether before or concurrently with approval of the product candidate, we, and/or future collaborators, may encounter difficulties in developing and obtaining approval for these companion diagnostics. Any delay or failure by us or third-party collaborators to develop or obtain regulatory approval of a companion diagnostic could delay or prevent approval or continued marketing of our related product candidates. Further, in April 2020, the FDA issued new guidance on developing and labeling companion diagnostics for a specific group of oncology therapeutic products, including recommendations to support a broader labeling claim rather than individual therapeutic products. We will continue to evaluate the impact of this guidance on our companion diagnostic development and strategy. This guidance and future issuances from the FDA and other regulatory authorities may impact our development of a companion diagnostic for our product candidates and result in delays in regulatory approval. We may be required to conduct additional studies to support a broader claim. Also, to the extent other approved diagnostics are able to broaden their labeling claims to include our approved drug products, we may be forced to abandon our companion diagnostic development plans or we may not be able to compete effectively upon approval, which could adversely impact our ability to generate revenue from the sale of our approved products and our business operations. Additionally, we may rely on third parties for the design, development and manufacture of companion diagnostic tests for our product candidates that may require such tests. If we enter into such collaborative agreements, we will be dependent on the sustained cooperation and effort of our future collaborators in developing and obtaining approval for these companion diagnostics. It may be necessary to resolve issues such as selectivity/specificity, analytical validation, reproducibility, or clinical validation of companion diagnostics during the development and regulatory approval processes. Moreover, even if data from preclinical studies and early clinical trials appear to support development of a companion diagnostic for a product candidate, data generated in later clinical trials may fail to support the analytical and clinical validation of the companion diagnostic. We and our future collaborators may encounter difficulties in developing, obtaining regulatory approval for, manufacturing

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and commercializing companion diagnostics similar to those we face with respect to our product candidates themselves, including issues with achieving regulatory clearance or approval, production of sufficient quantities at commercial scale and with appropriate quality standards, and in gaining market acceptance. If we are unable to successfully develop companion diagnostics for our product candidates, or experience delays in doing so, the development of our product candidates may be adversely affected, our product candidates may not obtain marketing approval, and we may not realize the full commercial potential of any of our product candidates that obtain marketing approval. As a result, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed. In addition, a diagnostic company with whom we contract may decide to discontinue selling or manufacturing the companion diagnostic test that we anticipate using in connection with development and commercialization of product candidates or our relationship with such diagnostic company may otherwise terminate. We may not be able to enter into arrangements with another diagnostic company to obtain supplies of an alternative diagnostic test for use in connection with the development and commercialization of our product candidates or do so on commercially reasonable terms, which could adversely affect and/or delay the development or commercialization of our product candidates.

We may seek Fast Track designation from the FDA for one or more of our product candidates. Even if one or more of our product candidates receive Fast Track designation, we may be unable to obtain or maintain the benefits associated with the Fast Track designation.

Fast Track designation is designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of therapies for serious conditions and fill an unmet medical need. Programs with Fast Track designation may benefit from early and frequent communications with the FDA, potential priority review and the ability to submit a rolling application for regulatory review. Fast Track designation applies to both the product candidate and the specific indication for which it is being studied. If any of our product candidates receive Fast Track designation but do not continue to meet the criteria for Fast Track designation, or if our clinical trials are delayed, suspended or terminated, or put on clinical hold due to unexpected adverse events or issues with clinical supply, we will not receive the benefits associated with the Fast Track program. Furthermore, Fast Track designation does not change the standards for approval. Fast Track designation alone does not guarantee qualification for the FDA’s priority review procedures.

We may not be able to obtain orphan drug designation or obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for our product candidates and, even if we do, that exclusivity may not prevent the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, from approving competing products.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States, or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the United States where there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States. Our target indications may include diseases with large patient populations or may include orphan indications. However, there can be no assurances that we will be able to obtain orphan designations for our product candidates.

In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers. In addition, if a product that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity in the United States provides that the FDA may not approve any other applications, including a full NDA, to market the same drug for the same indication for seven years, except in limited circumstances. The applicable exclusivity period is 10 years in Europe. The European exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified.

Even if we obtain orphan drug designation for a product candidate, we may not be able to obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for that product candidate. We may not be the first to obtain marketing approval of any product candidate for which we have obtained orphan drug designation for the orphan-designated indication due to the uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products. In addition, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be limited if we seek approval for an indication broader than the orphan-designated indication or may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if we are unable to ensure that we will be able to manufacture sufficient quantities of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Further, even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a product, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because different drugs with different active moieties may be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug with the same active moiety for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care or the manufacturer of the product with orphan exclusivity is unable to maintain sufficient product quantity. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug nor gives the product candidate any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process or entitles the product candidate to priority review.

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Where appropriate, we plan to secure approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities through the use of accelerated registration pathways. If we are unable to obtain such approval, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials beyond those that we contemplate, which could increase the expense of obtaining, and delay the receipt of, necessary marketing approvals. Even if we receive accelerated approval from the FDA, if our confirmatory trials do not verify clinical benefit, or if we do not comply with rigorous post-marketing requirements, the FDA may seek to withdraw accelerated approval.

Where possible, we plan to pursue accelerated development strategies in areas of high unmet need. We may seek an accelerated approval pathway for our one or more of our product candidates. Under the accelerated approval provisions in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and the FDA’s implementing regulations, the FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product candidate designed to treat a serious or life-threatening condition that provides meaningful therapeutic benefit over available therapies upon a determination that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint or intermediate clinical endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. The FDA considers a clinical benefit to be a positive therapeutic effect that is clinically meaningful in the context of a given disease, such as irreversible morbidity or mortality. For the purposes of accelerated approval, a surrogate endpoint is a marker, such as a laboratory measurement, radiographic image, physical sign, or other measure that is thought to predict clinical benefit, but is not itself a measure of clinical benefit. An intermediate clinical endpoint is a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit. The accelerated approval pathway may be used in cases in which the advantage of a new drug over available therapy may not be a direct therapeutic advantage, but is a clinically important improvement from a patient and public health perspective. If granted, accelerated approval is usually contingent on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct, in a diligent manner, additional post-approval confirmatory studies to verify and describe the drug’s clinical benefit. If such post-approval studies fail to confirm the drug’s clinical benefit, the FDA may withdraw its approval of the drug.

Prior to seeking such accelerated approval, we will seek feedback from the FDA and will otherwise evaluate our ability to seek and receive such accelerated approval. There can be no assurance that after our evaluation of the feedback and other factors we will decide to pursue or submit an NDA for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval. Similarly, there can be no assurance that after subsequent FDA feedback we will continue to pursue or apply for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval, even if we initially decide to do so. Furthermore, if we decide to submit an application for accelerated approval or under another expedited regulatory designation (e.g., breakthrough therapy designation), there can be no assurance that such submission or application will be accepted or that any expedited development, review or approval will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. The FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could also require us to conduct further studies prior to considering our application or granting approval of any type. A failure to obtain accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval for our product candidate would result in a longer time period to commercialization of such product candidate, could increase the cost of development of such product candidate and could harm our competitive position in the marketplace.

We may face difficulties from changes to current regulations and future legislation.

Existing regulatory policies may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the ACA), was passed, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and continues to significantly impact the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. Since its enactment, there have been legislative and judicial efforts to repeal, replace, or change some or all of the ACA. For example, various portions of the ACA have been subject to legal and constitutional challenges in the Fifth Circuit Court and the United States Supreme Court. In June 2021, the United States Supreme Court held that Texas and other challengers had no legal standing to challenge the ACA, dismissing the case without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. It is unclear how this Supreme Court decision, future litigation, and healthcare measures promulgated by the Biden administration will impact the implementation of the ACA, our business, financial condition and results of operations. Complying with any new legislation or reversing changes implemented under the ACA could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, effective April 1, 2013, which will stay in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension implemented under various COVID-19 relief legislation from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022, followed by 1% payment adjustment from April 1 to June 30, 2022 and resumption of the 2% adjustment beginning July 1, 2022, unless additional congressional action is taken. In January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These

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new laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on customers for our drugs, if approved, and accordingly, our financial operations.

Moreover, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. For example, HHS and CMS issued final rules in November and December of 2020 that were expected to impact, among others, price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers, manufacturer price reporting requirements under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, including regulations that affect manufacturer-sponsored patient assistance programs subject to pharmacy benefit manager accumulator programs and Best Price reporting related to certain value-based purchasing arrangements. Multiple lawsuits have been brought against the HHS challenging various aspects of the rules. Under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, effective January 1, 2024, the statutory cap on Medicaid Drug Rebate Program rebates that manufacturers pay to state Medicaid programs will be eliminated. Elimination of this cap may require pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay more in rebates than it receives on the sale of products, which could have a material impact on our business. Further, in July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order, “Promoting Competition in the American Economy,” with multiple provisions aimed at increasing competition for prescription drugs. In response to this executive order, the HHS released a Comprehensive Plan for Addressing High Drug Prices that outlines principles for drug pricing reform and potential legislative policies that Congress could pursue to advance these principles. In addition, Congress is considering legislation that, if passed, could have significant impact on prices of prescription drugs covered by Medicare, including limitations on drug price increases. The impact of these legislative, executive, and administrative actions and any future healthcare measures and agency rules implemented by the Biden administration on us and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole is unclear. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our product candidates if approved. Complying with any new legislation and regulatory changes could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, and expose us to greater liability.

At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. A number of states are considering or have recently enacted state drug price transparency and reporting laws that could substantially increase our compliance burdens and expose us to greater liability under such state laws once we begin commercialization after obtaining regulatory approval for any of our products. We are unable to predict the future course of federal or state healthcare legislation in the United States directed at broadening the availability of healthcare and containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. These and any further changes in the law or regulatory framework that reduce our revenue or increase our costs could also have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Further, on May 30, 2018, the Trickett Wendler, Frank Mongiello, Jordan McLinn, and Matthew Bellina Right to Try Act of 2017 (Right to Try Act), was signed into law. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to access certain investigational new product candidates that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. Under certain circumstances, eligible patients can seek treatment without enrolling in clinical trials and without obtaining FDA permission under the FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a drug manufacturer to make its products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act.

We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved product. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our product candidates. It is also possible that additional governmental action is taken to address the COVID-19 pandemic.

Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for biotechnology products. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our product candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

Additionally, the collection and use of health data in the European Union is governed by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which extends the geographical scope of European Union data protection law to non-European Union entities under certain conditions and imposes substantial obligations upon companies and new rights for individuals. Failure to comply with the GDPR and the applicable national data protection laws of the EU Member States may result in fines up to €20,000,000 or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher, and other administrative penalties. The GDPR may increase our responsibility and liability in relation to personal data that we may process, and we may be required to put in

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place additional mechanisms in an effort to comply with the GDPR. This may be onerous and if our efforts to comply with GDPR or other applicable European Union laws and regulations are not successful, it could adversely affect our business in the European Union. Further, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in 2020 invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, which had enabled the transfer of personal data from the EU to the U.S. for companies that had self-certified to the Privacy Shield. To the extent that we were to rely on Privacy Shield, we will not be able to do so in the future, and the ECJ’s decision otherwise may impose additional obligations with respect to the transfer of personal data from the EU to the U.S., each of which could increase our costs and obligations and impose limitations upon our ability to efficiently transfer personal data from the EU to the U.S.

Further, the exit from the EU of the United Kingdom (UK), often referred to as Brexit, has created uncertainty regarding data protection regulation in the UK. In particular, while the UK has implemented legislation that implements and complements the GDPR, with penalties for noncompliance of up to the greater of £17.5 million or four percent of worldwide revenues, aspects of data protection regulation in the UK, including with respect to cross-border data transfers, remain unclear in the medium to longer term following Brexit. The UK’s relationship with the EU may require us to incur significant costs and expenses in an effort to comply with distinct privacy and data protection requirements in the EU and UK. More generally, we may incur liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses under GDPR and the privacy and data protection laws of applicable EU member states and the United Kingdom in connection with any measures we take to comply with them.

Finally, state and foreign laws may apply generally to the privacy and security of information we maintain, and may differ from each other in significant ways, thus complicating compliance efforts. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA), which took effect on January 1, 2020, gives California residents expanded rights to access and require deletion of their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. In addition, the CCPA (a) allows enforcement by the California Attorney General, with fines set at $2,500 per violation (i.e., per person) or $7,500 per intentional violation and (b) authorizes private lawsuits to recover statutory damages for certain data breaches. While it exempts some data regulated by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and certain clinical trials data, the CCPA, to the extent applicable to our business and operations, may increase our compliance costs and potential liability with respect to other personal information we collect about California residents. Additionally, the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) was approved by California voters in November 2020. The CPRA significantly modified the CCPA, which may require us to modify our practices and policies and may further increase our compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers note that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the U.S., which could increase our potential liability and adversely affect our business. In addition to the CCPA, numerous other states’ legislatures are considering similar laws that will require ongoing compliance efforts and investment. For example, in March 2021, Virginia enacted a Consumer Data Protection Act that will go into effect on January 1, 2023 and in June 2021, Colorado enacted a Colorado Privacy Act that will go into effect on July 1, 2023, both of which share similarities with the CCPA, CPRA, and legislation proposed in other states. Complying with emerging and changing legal and regulatory requirements relating to privacy, data protection and other matters may cause us to incur costs or require us to change our business practices, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations and prospects.

Inadequate funding for the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, in recent years, including in 2018 and 2019, the U.S. government shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, had to furlough critical employees and stop critical activities. Separately, in response to the COVID-19 public health emergency, the FDA postponed most inspections of foreign manufacturing facilities and routine surveillance inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities in 2020. In May 2021, the FDA issued an updated guidance on manufacturing, supply chain, and drug and biological product inspections, indicating that it intends to continue using other tools and approaches where possible for pre-approval inspections, and that it will continue to conduct "mission-critical" inspections on a case-by-case basis, or, where possible to do so safely, resume prioritized domestic inspections, such as pre-approval and surveillance inspections. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, or if global health or other concerns continue to prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities in a timely manner, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, in our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

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Our relationships with healthcare professionals, clinical investigators, CROs and third party payors in connection with our current and future business activities may be subject to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, transparency laws, government price reporting, and health information privacy and security laws, which could expose us to significant losses, including, among other things, criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, exclusion from governmental healthcare programs, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers and third-party payors play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, clinical investigators, CROs, third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, as well as market, sell and distribute our products for which we obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations may include the following:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;
the federal false claims laws, including the civil False Claims Act, which can be enforced by private citizens through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, and civil monetary penalties laws, prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;
the federal HIPAA, prohibits, among other things, executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) and their implementing regulations, also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, on covered entities, which are health plans, healthcare clearinghouses, and certain health care providers, as those terms are defined by HIPAA, and their respective business associates, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires applicable manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to annually report to CMS information regarding payments and other transfers of value to physicians, as defined by such law, and teaching hospitals as well as information regarding ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Effective January 1, 2022, such reporting obligations for payments and transfers of value made in 2021 to covered recipients will be expanded to include physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants, and certified nurse-midwives; and
analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance regulations promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers, marketing expenditures, or drug pricing; state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales and medical representatives; state laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our current and future business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare and data privacy laws and regulations will involve on-going substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Defending against any such actions can be costly, time-consuming and may require significant financial and personnel resources. Therefore, even if we are successful in defending against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired. Further, if any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

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Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs, suppliers and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs, suppliers and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities. Misconduct by these parties could include failures to comply with FDA regulations, provide accurate information to the FDA, comply with federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws and regulations, accurately report financial information or data or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, research, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the health care industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Misconduct by these parties could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a code of conduct, but it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by these parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

If we fail to comply with other U.S. healthcare laws and compliance requirements, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In the United States, our current and future activities with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers are subject to regulation by various federal, state and local authorities in addition to the FDA, which may include but are not limited to, CMS, other divisions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (e.g., the Office of Inspector General), the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and individual U.S. Attorney offices within the DOJ, and state and local governments. For example, our business practices, including our clinical research, sales, marketing and scientific/educational grant programs may be required to comply with the anti-fraud and abuse provisions of the Social Security Act, the false claims laws, the patient data privacy and security provisions of HIPAA transparency requirements, and similar state laws, each as amended, as applicable.

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, any person or entity, from knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving any remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for the purchase, lease or order of any good, item, facility or service reimbursable, in whole or part, under Medicare, Medicaid or other federal healthcare programs. The term “remuneration” has been interpreted broadly to include anything of value. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers on the other. There are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution. The exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly and practices that involve remuneration that may be alleged to be intended to induce prescribing, purchasing or recommending may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or safe harbor. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular applicable statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute. Instead, the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on a cumulative review of all of its facts and circumstances. Our practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for protection under a statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor.

Additionally, the intent standard under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute was amended by the ACA, to a stricter standard such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. Rather, if “one purpose” of the remuneration is to induce referrals, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute is implicated. In addition, the ACA codified case law that a claim that includes items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act (discussed below).

The civil monetary penalties statute imposes penalties against any person or entity who, among other things, is determined to have presented or caused to be presented a claim to a federal healthcare program that the person knows or should know is for a medical or other item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent.

The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to, or approval by, the federal government, knowingly making, using, or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government, or knowingly making a false statement to improperly avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. As a result of a

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modification made by the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, a claim includes “any request or demand” for money or property presented to the U.S. government. Pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies are being investigated or, in the past, have been prosecuted under these laws for allegedly providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product. Other companies have been prosecuted for causing false claims to be submitted because of the companies’ marketing of the product for unapproved, and thus non-reimbursable, uses.

HIPAA imposes criminal and civil liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud or to obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations or promises, any money or property owned by, or under the control or custody of, any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by trick, scheme or device, a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Like the Anti-Kickback Statute, the ACA amended the intent standard for certain healthcare fraud statutes under HIPAA such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation.

Analogous U.S. state laws and regulations, including state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers our business practices.

HIPAA, as amended by HITECH, and their implementing regulations, imposes requirements on certain types of individuals and entities relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Among other things, HITECH makes HIPAA’s privacy and security standards directly applicable to business associates that are independent contractors or agents of covered entities that receive or obtain protected health information in connection with providing a service on behalf of a covered entity. HITECH also created four new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions.

Additionally, the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act within the ACA, and its implementing regulations, require that certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biological and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) report annually to CMS information related to certain payments or other transfers of value made or distributed to physicians and teaching hospitals, or to entities or individuals at the request of, or designated on behalf of, the physicians and teaching hospitals, and to report annually certain ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Effective January 1, 2022, such reporting obligations for payments and transfers of value made in 2021 to covered recipients will be expanded to include physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants and certified nurse-midwives.

In order to distribute products commercially, we must comply with state laws that require the registration of manufacturers and wholesale distributors of drug and biological products in a state, including, in certain states, manufacturers and distributors who ship products into the state even if such manufacturers or distributors have no place of business within the state. Some states also impose requirements on manufacturers and distributors to establish the pedigree of product in the chain of distribution, including some states that require manufacturers and others to adopt new technology capable of tracking and tracing product as it moves through the distribution chain.

State and local laws also require pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, establish marketing compliance programs, restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers professionals and entities and other potential referral sources, file periodic reports with the state relating to pricing and marketing, make periodic public disclosures on sales, marketing, pricing, clinical trials and other activities, and/or register field representatives, as well as to prohibit pharmacies and other healthcare entities from providing certain physician prescribing data to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for use in sales and marketing, and to prohibit certain other sales and marketing practices. All of our activities are potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws. Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal and state healthcare laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including without limitation, civil, criminal and/or administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, injunctions, private “qui tam” actions brought by individual whistleblowers in the name of the government, exclusion, debarment or refusal to allow us to enter into government contracts, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens, diminished profits and future earnings, additional reporting requirements and/or oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

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If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.

Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses, we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us in connection with our storage or disposal of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or commercialization efforts. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

Our business activities may be subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws of other countries in which we operate, as well as U.S. and certain foreign export controls, trade sanctions, and import laws and regulations. Compliance with these legal requirements could limit our ability to compete in foreign markets and subject us to liability if we violate them.

Our business activities may be subject to the FCPA and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate. The FCPA generally prohibits companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from offering, promising, giving or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to a non-U.S. government official in order to influence official action or otherwise obtain or retain business. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with public officials, including officials of non-U.S. governments. Additionally, in many other countries, hospitals are owned and operated by the government, and doctors and other hospital employees would be considered foreign officials under the FCPA. Recently, the SEC and DOJ have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. There is no certainty that all of our employees, agents or contractors, or those of our affiliates, will comply with all applicable laws and regulations, particularly given the high level of complexity of these laws. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, disgorgement, and other sanctions and remedial measures, and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could include prohibitions on our ability to offer our products in one or more countries and could materially damage our reputation, our brand, our international activities, our ability to attract and retain employees and our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

In addition, our products may be subject to U.S. and foreign export controls, trade sanctions and import laws and regulations. Governmental regulation of the import or export of our products, or our failure to obtain any required import or export authorization for our products, when applicable, could harm our international sales and adversely affect our revenue. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the export of our products may create delays in the introduction of our products in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export of our products to some countries altogether. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to countries, governments, and persons targeted by U.S. sanctions. If we fail to comply with export and import regulations and such economic sanctions, penalties could be imposed, including fines and/or denial of certain export privileges. Moreover, any new export or import restrictions, new legislation or shifting approaches in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or in the countries, persons, or products targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products would likely adversely affect our business.

If we fail to comply with California laws or Nasdaq rules governing the diversity of our board of directors, we could be exposed to financial penalties and suffer reputational harm.

In September 2018, California’s Senate Bill 826 was signed into law. Senate Bill 826 generally requires that a public company with a principal executive office in California have a minimum number of females on its board of directors, with such minimum number dependent on the size of such board of directors. By December 31, 2019, each public company with a principal executive office in California was required to have at least one female on its board of directors. By December 31, 2021, each public company with a principal executive office in California will be required to have at least two females on its board of directors if such company has at least five directors, and at least three females on its board of directors if such company has at least six directors.

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Additionally, in September 2020, Assembly Bill 979 was signed into law. Assembly Bill 979 generally requires that a public company with a principal executive office in California have a minimum number of directors from underrepresented communities, with such minimum number dependent on the size of such board of directors. A director from an underrepresented community means a director who self-identifies as Black, African American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, Native Hawaiian, Alaska Native, gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. By December 31, 2021, each public company with a principal executive office in California will be required to have at least one director from an underrepresented community. By December 31, 2022, a public company with a principal executive office in California will be required to have a minimum of two directors from an underrepresented community if such company has more than four but fewer than nine directors, and a minimum of three directors from an underrepresented community if such company has nine or more directors. These laws do not provide a transition period for newly listed companies.

In addition, in December 2020, Nasdaq announced that it filed with the SEC a proposal to advance board diversity and enhance transparency of board diversity statistics through new listing requirements. In August 2021, the SEC approved Nasdaq's proposal, which requires certain Nasdaq-listed companies to annually disclose diversity statistics regarding their directors’ voluntary self-identified characteristics and include at least two diverse directors on their boards of directors or publicly disclose why their boards of directors do not include diverse directors. Under the rule, a diverse director is someone who self-identifies either as female, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latinx, Asian, Native American or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, or two or more races or ethnicities, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or a member of the queer community. Under a phase-in period for companies listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, this disclosure requirement would require one diverse director two years after rule adoption and two diverse directors four years after rule adoption.

Our board of directors currently includes three female directors and two directors from an underrepresented community. Based on the current composition of our board of directors we are in compliance with Senate Bill 826 and Assembly Bill 979. Failure to maintain the required composition of our board of directors may result in a violation of such laws. An initial violation of either law may result in a fine from the California Secretary of State in the amount of $100,000, with each subsequent violation resulting in a fine of $300,000. In addition, under the Nasdaq diversity rule, if our current or future diverse directors no longer serve on our board of directors we could be out of compliance with Nasdaq. Additionally, we cannot guarantee that we can recruit, attract and/or retain qualified members of the board of directors and meet gender and diversity requirements under California law or the Nasdaq rule, which may expose us to financial penalties and adversely affect our reputation.

Risks related to employee matters, managing our growth and other risks related to our business

Our success is highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled executive officers and employees.

To succeed, we must recruit, retain, manage and motivate qualified clinical, scientific, technical and management personnel, and we face significant competition for experienced personnel. We are highly dependent on the principal members of our management and scientific and medical staff. If we do not succeed in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, particularly at the management level, it could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan and harm our operating results. In particular, the loss of one or more of our executive officers could be detrimental to us if we cannot recruit suitable replacements in a timely manner. We could in the future have difficulty attracting and retaining experienced personnel and may be required to expend significant financial resources in our employee recruitment and retention efforts.

Many of the other biotechnology companies that we compete against for qualified personnel have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and a longer history in the industry than we do. They also may provide higher compensation, more diverse opportunities and better prospects for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates than what we have to offer. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high-quality personnel, the rate and success at which we can discover, develop and commercialize our product candidates will be limited and the potential for successfully growing our business will be harmed.

Additionally, we rely on our scientific founders and other scientific and clinical advisors and consultants to assist us in formulating our research, development and clinical strategies. These advisors and consultants are not our employees and may have commitments to, or consulting or advisory contracts with, other entities that may limit their availability to us. In addition, these advisors and consultants typically will not enter into non-compete agreements with us. If a conflict of interest arises between their work for us and their work for another entity, we may lose their services. Furthermore, our advisors may have arrangements with other companies to assist those companies in developing products or technologies that may compete with ours. In particular, if we are unable to maintain consulting relationships with our scientific founders or if they provide services to our competitors, our development and commercialization efforts will be impaired and our business will be significantly harmed.

If we are unable to establish sales or marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to sell or market our product candidates, we may not be able to successfully sell or market our product candidates that obtain regulatory approval.

We currently do not have and have never had a marketing or sales team. In order to commercialize any product candidates, if approved, we must build marketing, sales, distribution, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with

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third parties to perform these services for each of the territories in which we may have approval to sell or market our product candidates. We may not be successful in accomplishing these required tasks.

Establishing an internal sales or marketing team with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize our product candidates will be expensive and time-consuming, and will require significant attention of our executive officers to manage. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities could adversely impact the commercialization of any of our product candidates that we obtain approval to market, if we do not have arrangements in place with third parties to provide such services on our behalf. Alternatively, if we choose to collaborate, either globally or on a territory-by-territory basis, with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems, either to augment our own sales force and distribution systems or in lieu of our own sales force and distribution systems, we will be required to negotiate and enter into arrangements with such third parties relating to the proposed collaboration and such arrangements may prove to be less profitable than commercializing the product on our own. If we are unable to enter into such arrangements when needed, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any of our product candidates that receive regulatory approval, or any such commercialization may experience delays or limitations. If we are unable to successfully commercialize our approved product candidates, either on our own or through collaborations with one or more third parties, our future product revenue will suffer, and we may incur significant additional losses.

In order to successfully implement our plans and strategies, we will need to grow the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

As of December 31, 2021, we had 78 full-time employees, including 55 employees engaged in research and development. In order to successfully implement our development and commercialization plans and strategies, we expect to need additional managerial, operational, sales, marketing, financial and other personnel. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:

identifying, recruiting, integrating, maintaining and motivating additional employees;
managing our internal development efforts effectively, including the clinical, FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory agencies’ review process for our product candidates, while complying with any contractual obligations to contractors and other third parties we may have; and
improving our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.

Our future financial performance and our ability to successfully develop and, if approved, commercialize our product candidates will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth, and our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities in order to devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities.

We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services, including key aspects of clinical development and manufacturing. We cannot assure you that the services of independent organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed, or that we can find qualified replacements. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by third party service providers is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates or otherwise advance our business. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our existing third-party service providers or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all.

If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and/or engaging additional third-party service providers, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize our product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

Our internal computer systems, or those of any of our CROs, manufacturers, other contractors or consultants or potential future collaborators, may fail or suffer security or data privacy breaches or incidents or other unauthorized or improper access to, use of, or destruction of our proprietary or confidential data, employee data, or personal data, which could result in additional costs, loss of revenue, significant liabilities, harm to our brand and material disruption of our operations.

Despite the implementation of security measures in an effort to protect systems that store our information, given their size and complexity and the increasing amounts of information maintained and otherwise processed on our internal information technology systems, and those of our third-party CROs, other contractors (including sites performing our clinical trials) and consultants, these systems are potentially vulnerable to breakdown or other damage or interruption from service interruptions, system malfunction, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, as well as security breaches and incidents from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, contractors, consultants, business partners, and/or other third parties, or from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties (including the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information),

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which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to the loss, destruction, alteration, disclosure, or dissemination of, or damage or unauthorized access to, our data or data that is processed or maintained on our behalf, or other assets. For example, we have received phishing attacks, and companies have experienced an increase in phishing and social engineering attacks from third parties in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, and the increase in remote working further increases security threats. If any disruption or security breach or incident were to result in any loss, destruction, unavailability, alteration, disclosure, or dissemination of, or damage to or unauthorized access, our applications, any other data processed or maintained on our behalf, or other assets, or for it to be believed or reported that any of these occurred, we could incur liability, financial harm and reputational damage and the development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed. We cannot assure you that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology, or the efforts or investments of CROs, consultants or other third parties, will prevent significant breakdowns or breaches in systems or have prevented or will prevent other cyber incidents that cause loss, destruction, unavailability, alteration or dissemination of, or damage or unauthorized access to, our data or other data processed or maintained on our behalf or other assets that could have a material adverse effect upon our reputation, business, operations or financial condition. For example, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our programs and the development of our product candidates could be delayed. In addition, the loss of clinical trial data for our product candidates could result in delays in our marketing approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Furthermore, significant disruptions of our internal information technology systems or security breaches could result in the loss, misappropriation, and/or unauthorized access, use, or disclosure or dissemination of, or the prevention of access to, data (including trade secrets or other confidential information, intellectual property, proprietary business information, and personal information), which could result in financial, legal, business, and reputational harm to us. For example, any such event or any other security breach or incident that leads to loss, damage, or unauthorized access to, or use, alteration, or disclosure or dissemination of, personal information, including personal information regarding our clinical trial subjects or employees, could harm our reputation directly, compel us to comply with federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, subject us to mandatory corrective action, and otherwise subject us to liability under laws and regulations that protect the privacy and security of personal information, which could result in significant legal and financial exposure and reputational damages that could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.

Notifications and follow-up actions related to a security breach or incident could impact our reputation and cause us to incur significant costs, including legal expenses and remediation costs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the lost data. We expect to incur significant costs in an effort to detect and prevent security incidents, and we may face increased costs and requirements to expend substantial resources in the event of an actual or perceived security breach. We also rely on third parties to manufacture our product candidates, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business. If any disruption or security incident were to result in any disruption of our operations or loss, destruction, or alteration of, or damage or unauthorized access to, our data or other information that is processed or maintained on our behalf, or inappropriate disclosure or dissemination of any such information, we could be exposed to litigation and governmental investigations, the further development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed, and we could be subject to significant fines or penalties for any noncompliance with certain state, federal and/or international privacy and security laws.

Our insurance policies may not be adequate to compensate us for the potential losses arising from any such disruption in or, failure or security breach or incident of our systems or third-party systems where information important to our business operations or commercial development is stored or otherwise processed. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all. Further, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us and could have high deductibles in any event, and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management attention.

Our operations are vulnerable to interruption by fire, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failure, terrorist activity, pandemics and other events beyond our control, which could harm our business.

Our facilities are located in California. We have not undertaken a systematic analysis of the potential consequences to our business and financial results from a major flood, fire, earthquake, power loss, terrorist activity, pandemics or other disasters and do not have a recovery plan for such disasters. In addition, we do not carry sufficient insurance to compensate us for actual losses from interruption of our business that may occur, and any losses or damages incurred by us could harm our business. The occurrence of any of these business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Business Officer were subpoenaed for information by the Securities and Exchange Commission on a matter unrelated to ORIC.

Our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Business Officer each received subpoenas for documents and information, in their personal capacities, from the SEC in March and April 2020 related to an SEC investigation into the trading of securities of certain other companies. On August 17, 2021, our Chief Financial Officer received a letter from the SEC indicating that the SEC had concluded its investigation as to him without recommending further action. On the same date, the SEC filed a civil enforcement action against our Chief Business Officer. The SEC’s civil enforcement action may become time consuming and distracting for our Chief Business Officer, and if such action is successful, he could be subject to fines, penalties and the imposition of restrictive sanctions that may affect his ability to serve as an officer of our company.

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Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes to offset future taxable income may be limited.

Our net operating loss (NOL) carryforwards may be unavailable to offset future taxable income because of restrictions under U.S. tax law. Our NOLs generated in tax years beginning prior to January 1, 2018 are only permitted to be carried forward for 20 taxable years under applicable U.S. federal tax law, and therefore could expire unused. Under tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act) as amended by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), our federal NOLs generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, the deductibility of federal NOLs generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 is limited to 80% of our current year taxable income. As of December 31, 2021, we had available NOL carryforwards of $198.2 million, of which $156.6 million do not expire. We also have available California NOL carryforwards of approximately $197.3 million as of December 31, 2021, which begin to expire in 2034 and are subject to limitation on use. In addition, we have federal and California research and development credit carryforwards totaling $6.1 million and $3.9 million, respectively. The federal credits begin to expire in 2034 unless previously utilized, while the state credits do not expire.

In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a cumulative change in the corporation’s ownership by “5-percent shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOLs and certain other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change taxable income may be limited. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We may have experienced such ownership changes in the past, and we may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of shifts in our stock ownership, some of which are outside our control. We have not conducted any studies to determine annual limitations, if any, that could result from such changes in the ownership. Our ability to utilize our NOLs and certain other tax attributes could be limited by an “ownership change” as described above and consequently, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs and certain other tax attributes, which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows and results of operations.

U.S. federal income tax reform could materially adversely affect our company.

Recent legislation commonly known as the Tax Act, significantly revises the Code. The Tax Act, as amended by the CARES Act, among other things, reduces the corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21%, limits the tax deduction for interest expense and modifies or repeals many business deductions and credits. Our financial statements included elsewhere in this periodic report reflect the effects of the Tax Act based on current guidance. However, there remain uncertainties and ambiguities in the application of certain provisions of the Tax Act and, as a result, we made certain judgments and assumptions in the interpretation thereof. The U.S. Treasury Department and the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, may issue further guidance on how the provisions of the Tax Act will be applied or otherwise administered, which may differ from our current interpretation. In addition, the Tax Act could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, any of which could materially lessen or increase certain adverse impacts of the legislation on us. Additionally, the current administration in the United States and congressional decisions made in the near future may result in increased corporate tax. For example, the current administration has proposed increasing the corporate tax rate, among other changes. If enacted, such legislation may increase the amount of tax we may owe in future taxable years, which may adversely impact our business.

A variety of risks associated with marketing our product candidates internationally could materially adversely affect our business.

We may seek regulatory approval of our product candidates outside of the United States and, accordingly, we expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to operating in foreign countries if we obtain the necessary approvals, including:

differing regulatory requirements and reimbursement regimes in foreign countries;
unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers, price and exchange controls and other regulatory requirements;
economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;
compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;
foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;
foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenue, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;
difficulties staffing and managing foreign operations;
workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;
potential liability under the FCPA or comparable foreign regulations;

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challenges enforcing our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the United States;
production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and
business interruptions resulting from geo-political